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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 8601-8700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremcantnfs 8601 Elementhood in the set of finitely supported functions from 𝐵 to 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑆 ↔ (𝐹:𝐵𝐴𝐹 finSupp ∅)))

Theoremcantnfcl 8602 Basic properties of the order isomorphism 𝐺 used later. The support of an 𝐹𝑆 is a finite subset of 𝐴, so it is well-ordered by E and the order isomorphism has domain a finite ordinal. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)       (𝜑 → ( E We (𝐹 supp ∅) ∧ dom 𝐺 ∈ ω))

Theoremcantnfval 8603* The value of the Cantor normal form function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) = (𝐻‘dom 𝐺))

Theoremcantnfval2 8604* Alternate expression for the value of the Cantor normal form function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) = (seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐺, 𝑧 ∈ On ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)‘dom 𝐺))

Theoremcantnfsuc 8605* The value of the recursive function 𝐻 at a successor. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       ((𝜑𝐾 ∈ ω) → (𝐻‘suc 𝐾) = (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝐾)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝐾))) +𝑜 (𝐻𝐾)))

Theoremcantnfle 8606* A lower bound on the CNF function. Since ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) is defined as the sum of (𝐴𝑜 𝑥) ·𝑜 (𝐹𝑥) over all 𝑥 in the support of 𝐹, it is larger than any of these terms (and all other terms are zero, so we can extend the statement to all 𝐶𝐵 instead of just those 𝐶 in the support). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝐵)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴𝑜 𝐶) ·𝑜 (𝐹𝐶)) ⊆ ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹))

Theoremcantnflt 8607* An upper bound on the partial sums of the CNF function. Since each term dominates all previous terms, by induction we can bound the whole sum with any exponent 𝐴𝑜 𝐶 where 𝐶 is larger than any exponent (𝐺𝑥), 𝑥𝐾 which has been summed so far. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 29-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ suc dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺𝐾) ⊆ 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝐻𝐾) ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝐶))

Theoremcantnflt2 8608 An upper bound on the CNF function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 29-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 supp ∅) ⊆ 𝐶)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝐶))

Theoremcantnff 8609 The CNF function is a function from finitely supported functions from 𝐵 to 𝐴, to the ordinal exponential 𝐴𝑜 𝐵. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 CNF 𝐵):𝑆⟶(𝐴𝑜 𝐵))

Theoremcantnf0 8610 The value of the zero function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘(𝐵 × {∅})) = ∅)

Theoremcantnfrescl 8611* A function is finitely supported from 𝐵 to 𝐴 iff the extended function is finitely supported from 𝐷 to 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (𝐷𝐵)) → 𝑋 = ∅)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐴)    &   𝑇 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐷)       (𝜑 → ((𝑛𝐵𝑋) ∈ 𝑆 ↔ (𝑛𝐷𝑋) ∈ 𝑇))

Theoremcantnfres 8612* The CNF function respects extensions of the domain to a larger ordinal. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (𝐷𝐵)) → 𝑋 = ∅)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐴)    &   𝑇 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛𝐵𝑋) ∈ 𝑆)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘(𝑛𝐵𝑋)) = ((𝐴 CNF 𝐷)‘(𝑛𝐷𝑋)))

Theoremcantnfp1lem1 8613* Lemma for cantnfp1 8616. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺 supp ∅) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐵 ↦ if(𝑡 = 𝑋, 𝑌, (𝐺𝑡)))       (𝜑𝐹𝑆)

Theoremcantnfp1lem2 8614* Lemma for cantnfp1 8616. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jun-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺 supp ∅) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐵 ↦ if(𝑡 = 𝑋, 𝑌, (𝐺𝑡)))    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝑌)    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))       (𝜑 → dom 𝑂 = suc dom 𝑂)

Theoremcantnfp1lem3 8615* Lemma for cantnfp1 8616. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 1-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺 supp ∅) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐵 ↦ if(𝑡 = 𝑋, 𝑌, (𝐺𝑡)))    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝑌)    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝑂𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝑂𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝐾 = OrdIso( E , (𝐺 supp ∅))    &   𝑀 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝐾𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐺‘(𝐾𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) = (((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌) +𝑜 ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐺)))

Theoremcantnfp1 8616* If 𝐹 is created by adding a single term (𝐹𝑋) = 𝑌 to 𝐺, where 𝑋 is larger than any element of the support of 𝐺, then 𝐹 is also a finitely supported function and it is assigned the value ((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌) +𝑜 𝑧 where 𝑧 is the value of 𝐺. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 1-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺 supp ∅) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐵 ↦ if(𝑡 = 𝑋, 𝑌, (𝐺𝑡)))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑆 ∧ ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) = (((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌) +𝑜 ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐺))))

Theoremoemapso 8617* The relation 𝑇 is a strict order on 𝑆 (a corollary of wemapso2 8499). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}       (𝜑𝑇 Or 𝑆)

Theoremoemapval 8618* Value of the relation 𝑇. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑇𝐺 ↔ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝐹𝑧) ∈ (𝐺𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝐹𝑤) = (𝐺𝑤)))))

Theoremoemapvali 8619* If 𝐹 < 𝐺, then there is some 𝑧 witnessing this, but we can say more and in fact there is a definable expression 𝑋 that also witnesses 𝐹 < 𝐺. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}       (𝜑 → (𝑋𝐵 ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ (𝐺𝑋) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑋𝑤 → (𝐹𝑤) = (𝐺𝑤))))

Theoremcantnflem1a 8620* Lemma for cantnf 8628. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}       (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐺 supp ∅))

Theoremcantnflem1b 8621* Lemma for cantnf 8628. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐺 supp ∅))       ((𝜑 ∧ (suc 𝑢 ∈ dom 𝑂 ∧ (𝑂𝑋) ⊆ 𝑢)) → 𝑋 ⊆ (𝑂𝑢))

Theoremcantnflem1c 8622* Lemma for cantnf 8628. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jul-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Apr-2020.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐺 supp ∅))       ((((𝜑 ∧ (suc 𝑢 ∈ dom 𝑂 ∧ (𝑂𝑋) ⊆ 𝑢)) ∧ 𝑥𝐵) ∧ ((𝐹𝑥) ≠ ∅ ∧ (𝑂𝑢) ∈ 𝑥)) → 𝑥 ∈ (𝐺 supp ∅))

Theoremcantnflem1d 8623* Lemma for cantnf 8628. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐺 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝑂𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐺‘(𝑂𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘(𝑥𝐵 ↦ if(𝑥𝑋, (𝐹𝑥), ∅))) ∈ (𝐻‘suc (𝑂𝑋)))

Theoremcantnflem1 8624* Lemma for cantnf 8628. This part of the proof is showing uniqueness of the Cantor normal form. We already know that the relation 𝑇 is a strict order, but we haven't shown it is a well-order yet. But being a strict order is enough to show that two distinct 𝐹, 𝐺 are 𝑇 -related as 𝐹 < 𝐺 or 𝐺 < 𝐹, and WLOG assuming that 𝐹 < 𝐺, we show that CNF respects this order and maps these two to different ordinals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑇𝐺)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐𝐵 ∣ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ (𝐺𝑐)}    &   𝑂 = OrdIso( E , (𝐺 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (((𝐴𝑜 (𝑂𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐺‘(𝑂𝑘))) +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐹) ∈ ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐺))

Theoremcantnflem2 8625* Lemma for cantnf 8628. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ⊆ ran (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 ∈ (On ∖ 2𝑜) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (On ∖ 1𝑜)))

Theoremcantnflem3 8626* Lemma for cantnf 8628. Here we show existence of Cantor normal forms. Assuming (by transfinite induction) that every number less than 𝐶 has a normal form, we can use oeeu 7728 to factor 𝐶 into the form ((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌) +𝑜 𝑍 where 0 < 𝑌 < 𝐴 and 𝑍 < (𝐴𝑜 𝑋) (and a fortiori 𝑋 < 𝐵). Then since 𝑍 < (𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ≤ (𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌𝐶, 𝑍 has a normal form, and by appending the term (𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑌 using cantnfp1 8616 we get a normal form for 𝐶. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ⊆ ran (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐶)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐 ∈ On ∣ 𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝑐)}    &   𝑃 = (℩𝑑𝑎 ∈ On ∃𝑏 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝑋)(𝑑 = ⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩ ∧ (((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑎) +𝑜 𝑏) = 𝐶))    &   𝑌 = (1st𝑃)    &   𝑍 = (2nd𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝐴 CNF 𝐵)‘𝐺) = 𝑍)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐵 ↦ if(𝑡 = 𝑋, 𝑌, (𝐺𝑡)))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ran (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))

Theoremcantnflem4 8627* Lemma for cantnf 8628. Complete the induction step of cantnflem3 8626. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ⊆ ran (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐶)    &   𝑋 = {𝑐 ∈ On ∣ 𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝑐)}    &   𝑃 = (℩𝑑𝑎 ∈ On ∃𝑏 ∈ (𝐴𝑜 𝑋)(𝑑 = ⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩ ∧ (((𝐴𝑜 𝑋) ·𝑜 𝑎) +𝑜 𝑏) = 𝐶))    &   𝑌 = (1st𝑃)    &   𝑍 = (2nd𝑃)       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ran (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))

Theoremcantnf 8628* The Cantor Normal Form theorem. The function (𝐴 CNF 𝐵), which maps a finitely supported function from 𝐵 to 𝐴 to the sum ((𝐴𝑜 𝑓(𝑎1)) ∘ 𝑎1) +𝑜 ((𝐴𝑜 𝑓(𝑎2)) ∘ 𝑎2) +𝑜 ... over all indexes 𝑎 < 𝐵 such that 𝑓(𝑎) is nonzero, is an order isomorphism from the ordering 𝑇 of finitely supported functions to the set (𝐴𝑜 𝐵) under the natural order. Setting 𝐴 = ω and letting 𝐵 be arbitrarily large, the surjectivity of this function implies that every ordinal has a Cantor normal form (and injectivity, together with coherence cantnfres 8612, implies that such a representation is unique). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}       (𝜑 → (𝐴 CNF 𝐵) Isom 𝑇, E (𝑆, (𝐴𝑜 𝐵)))

Theoremoemapwe 8629* The lexicographic order on a function space of ordinals gives a well-ordering with order type equal to the ordinal exponential. This provides an alternate definition of the ordinal exponential. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}       (𝜑 → (𝑇 We 𝑆 ∧ dom OrdIso(𝑇, 𝑆) = (𝐴𝑜 𝐵)))

Theoremcantnffval2 8630* An alternate definition of df-cnf 8597 which relies on cantnf 8628. (Note that although the use of 𝑆 seems self-referential, one can use cantnfdm 8599 to eliminate it.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥𝑧) ∈ (𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐵 (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}       (𝜑 → (𝐴 CNF 𝐵) = OrdIso(𝑇, 𝑆))

Theoremcantnff1o 8631 Simplify the isomorphism of cantnf 8628 to simple bijection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.)
𝑆 = dom (𝐴 CNF 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 CNF 𝐵):𝑆1-1-onto→(𝐴𝑜 𝐵))

Theoremwemapwe 8632* Construct lexicographic order on a function space based on a reverse well-ordering of the indexes and a well-ordering of the values. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝑇 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ ∃𝑧𝐴 ((𝑥𝑧)𝑆(𝑦𝑧) ∧ ∀𝑤𝐴 (𝑧𝑅𝑤 → (𝑥𝑤) = (𝑦𝑤)))}    &   𝑈 = {𝑥 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝐴) ∣ 𝑥 finSupp 𝑍}    &   (𝜑𝑅 We 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑆 We 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ≠ ∅)    &   𝐹 = OrdIso(𝑅, 𝐴)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso(𝑆, 𝐵)    &   𝑍 = (𝐺‘∅)       (𝜑𝑇 We 𝑈)

Theoremoef1o 8633* A bijection of the base sets induces a bijection on ordinal exponentials. (The assumption (𝐹‘∅) = ∅ can be discharged using fveqf1o 6597.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴1-1-onto𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝐵1-1-onto𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (On ∖ 1𝑜))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹‘∅) = ∅)    &   𝐾 = (𝑦 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝑚 𝐵) ∣ 𝑥 finSupp ∅} ↦ (𝐹 ∘ (𝑦𝐺)))    &   𝐻 = (((𝐶 CNF 𝐷) ∘ 𝐾) ∘ (𝐴 CNF 𝐵))       (𝜑𝐻:(𝐴𝑜 𝐵)–1-1-onto→(𝐶𝑜 𝐷))

Theoremcnfcomlem 8634* Lemma for cnfcom 8635. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑂 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝐼)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝐼):(𝐻𝐼)–1-1-onto𝑂)       (𝜑 → (𝑇‘suc 𝐼):(𝐻‘suc 𝐼)–1-1-onto→((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝐼)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝐼))))

Theoremcnfcom 8635* Any ordinal 𝐵 is equinumerous to the leading term of its Cantor normal form. Here we show that bijection explicitly. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ dom 𝐺)       (𝜑 → (𝑇‘suc 𝐼):(𝐻‘suc 𝐼)–1-1-onto→((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝐼)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝐼))))

Theoremcnfcom2lem 8636* Lemma for cnfcom2 8637. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   𝑊 = (𝐺 dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐵)       (𝜑 → dom 𝐺 = suc dom 𝐺)

Theoremcnfcom2 8637* Any nonzero ordinal 𝐵 is equinumerous to the leading term of its Cantor normal form. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   𝑊 = (𝐺 dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ∅ ∈ 𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝑇‘dom 𝐺):𝐵1-1-onto→((ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ·𝑜 (𝐹𝑊)))

Theoremcnfcom3lem 8638* Lemma for cnfcom3 8639. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 4-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   𝑊 = (𝐺 dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ω ⊆ 𝐵)       (𝜑𝑊 ∈ (On ∖ 1𝑜))

Theoremcnfcom3 8639* Any infinite ordinal 𝐵 is equinumerous to a power of ω. (We are being careful here to show explicit bijections rather than simple equinumerosity because we want a uniform construction for cnfcom3c 8641.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 4-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴))    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝐵)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   𝑊 = (𝐺 dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ω ⊆ 𝐵)    &   𝑋 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝐹𝑊), 𝑣 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ↦ (((𝐹𝑊) ·𝑜 𝑣) +𝑜 𝑢))    &   𝑌 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝐹𝑊), 𝑣 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ↦ (((ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ·𝑜 𝑢) +𝑜 𝑣))    &   𝑁 = ((𝑋𝑌) ∘ (𝑇‘dom 𝐺))       (𝜑𝑁:𝐵1-1-onto→(ω ↑𝑜 𝑊))

Theoremcnfcom3clem 8640* Lemma for cnfcom3c 8641. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 4-Jul-2019.)
𝑆 = dom (ω CNF 𝐴)    &   𝐹 = ((ω CNF 𝐴)‘𝑏)    &   𝐺 = OrdIso( E , (𝐹 supp ∅))    &   𝐻 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑧)), ∅)    &   𝑇 = seq𝜔((𝑘 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝐾), ∅)    &   𝑀 = ((ω ↑𝑜 (𝐺𝑘)) ·𝑜 (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))    &   𝐾 = ((𝑥𝑀 ↦ (dom 𝑓 +𝑜 𝑥)) ∪ (𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑓 ↦ (𝑀 +𝑜 𝑥)))    &   𝑊 = (𝐺 dom 𝐺)    &   𝑋 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝐹𝑊), 𝑣 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ↦ (((𝐹𝑊) ·𝑜 𝑣) +𝑜 𝑢))    &   𝑌 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝐹𝑊), 𝑣 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ↦ (((ω ↑𝑜 𝑊) ·𝑜 𝑢) +𝑜 𝑣))    &   𝑁 = ((𝑋𝑌) ∘ (𝑇‘dom 𝐺))    &   𝐿 = (𝑏 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐴) ↦ 𝑁)       (𝐴 ∈ On → ∃𝑔𝑏𝐴 (ω ⊆ 𝑏 → ∃𝑤 ∈ (On ∖ 1𝑜)(𝑔𝑏):𝑏1-1-onto→(ω ↑𝑜 𝑤)))

Theoremcnfcom3c 8641* Wrap the construction of cnfcom3 8639 into an existence quantifier. For any ω ⊆ 𝑏, there is a bijection from 𝑏 to some power of ω. Furthermore, this bijection is canonical , which means that we can find a single function 𝑔 which will give such bijections for every 𝑏 less than some arbitrarily large bound 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ On → ∃𝑔𝑏𝐴 (ω ⊆ 𝑏 → ∃𝑤 ∈ (On ∖ 1𝑜)(𝑔𝑏):𝑏1-1-onto→(ω ↑𝑜 𝑤)))

2.6.4  Transitive closure

Theoremtrcl 8642* For any set 𝐴, show the properties of its transitive closure 𝐶. Similar to Theorem 9.1 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 73 except that we show an explicit expression for the transitive closure rather than just its existence. See tz9.1 8643 for an abbreviated version showing existence. (Contributed by NM, 14-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Sep-2015.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐹 = (rec((𝑧 ∈ V ↦ (𝑧 𝑧)), 𝐴) ↾ ω)    &   𝐶 = 𝑦 ∈ ω (𝐹𝑦)       (𝐴𝐶 ∧ Tr 𝐶 ∧ ∀𝑥((𝐴𝑥 ∧ Tr 𝑥) → 𝐶𝑥))

Theoremtz9.1 8643* Every set has a transitive closure (the smallest transitive extension). Theorem 9.1 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 73. See trcl 8642 for an explicit expression for the transitive closure. Apparently open problems are whether this theorem can be proved without the Axiom of Infinity; if not, then whether it implies Infinity; and if not, what is the "property" that Infinity has that the other axioms don't have that is weaker than Infinity itself?

(Added 22-Mar-2011) The following article seems to answer the first question, that it can't be proved without Infinity, in the affirmative: Mancini, Antonella and Zambella, Domenico (2001). "A note on recursive models of set theories." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 42(2):109-115. (Thanks to Scott Fenton.) (Contributed by NM, 15-Sep-2003.)

𝐴 ∈ V       𝑥(𝐴𝑥 ∧ Tr 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦((𝐴𝑦 ∧ Tr 𝑦) → 𝑥𝑦))

Theoremtz9.1c 8644* Alternate expression for the existence of transitive closures tz9.1 8643: the intersection of all transitive sets containing 𝐴 is a set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Mar-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V        {𝑥 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ Tr 𝑥)} ∈ V

Theoremepfrs 8645* The strong form of the Axiom of Regularity (no sethood requirement on 𝐴), with the axiom itself present as an antecedent. See also zfregs 8646. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Mar-2013.)
(( E Fr 𝐴𝐴 ≠ ∅) → ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑥𝐴) = ∅)

Theoremzfregs 8646* The strong form of the Axiom of Regularity, which does not require that 𝐴 be a set. Axiom 6' of [TakeutiZaring] p. 21. See also epfrs 8645. (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2003.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑥𝐴) = ∅)

Theoremzfregs2 8647* Alternate strong form of the Axiom of Regularity. Not every element of a nonempty class contains some element of that class. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 24-Oct-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Sep-2013.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → ¬ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦(𝑦𝐴𝑦𝑥))

Theoremsetind 8648* Set (epsilon) induction. Theorem 5.22 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 21. (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2003.)
(∀𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐴) → 𝐴 = V)

Theoremsetind2 8649 Set (epsilon) induction, stated compactly. Given as a homework problem in 1992 by George Boolos (1940-1996). (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2003.)
(𝒫 𝐴𝐴𝐴 = V)

Syntaxctc 8650 Extend class notation to include the transitive closure function.
class TC

Definitiondf-tc 8651* The transitive closure function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
TC = (𝑥 ∈ V ↦ {𝑦 ∣ (𝑥𝑦 ∧ Tr 𝑦)})

Theoremtcvalg 8652* Value of the transitive closure function. (The fact that this intersection exists is a non-trivial fact that depends on ax-inf 8573; see tz9.1 8643.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (TC‘𝐴) = {𝑥 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ Tr 𝑥)})

Theoremtcid 8653 Defining property of the transitive closure function: it contains its argument as a subset. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
(𝐴𝑉𝐴 ⊆ (TC‘𝐴))

Theoremtctr 8654 Defining property of the transitive closure function: it is transitive. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
Tr (TC‘𝐴)

Theoremtcmin 8655 Defining property of the transitive closure function: it is a subset of any transitive class containing 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ((𝐴𝐵 ∧ Tr 𝐵) → (TC‘𝐴) ⊆ 𝐵))

Theoremtc2 8656* A variant of the definition of the transitive closure function, using instead the smallest transitive set containing 𝐴 as a member, gives almost the same set, except that 𝐴 itself must be added because it is not usually a member of (TC‘𝐴) (and it is never a member if 𝐴 is well-founded). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V       ((TC‘𝐴) ∪ {𝐴}) = {𝑥 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ Tr 𝑥)}

Theoremtcsni 8657 The transitive closure of a singleton. Proof suggested by Gérard Lang. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (TC‘{𝐴}) = ((TC‘𝐴) ∪ {𝐴})

Theoremtcss 8658 The transitive closure function inherits the subset relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐵𝐴 → (TC‘𝐵) ⊆ (TC‘𝐴))

Theoremtcel 8659 The transitive closure function converts the element relation to the subset relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐵𝐴 → (TC‘𝐵) ⊆ (TC‘𝐴))

Theoremtcidm 8660 The transitive closure function is idempotent. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Jun-2013.)
(TC‘(TC‘𝐴)) = (TC‘𝐴)

Theoremtc0 8661 The transitive closure of the empty set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.)
(TC‘∅) = ∅

Theoremtc00 8662 The transitive closure is empty iff its argument is. Proof suggested by Gérard Lang. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Jun-2015.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ((TC‘𝐴) = ∅ ↔ 𝐴 = ∅))

2.6.5  Rank

Syntaxcr1 8663 Extend class definition to include the cumulative hierarchy of sets function.
class 𝑅1

Syntaxcrnk 8664 Extend class definition to include rank function.
class rank

Definitiondf-r1 8665 Define the cumulative hierarchy of sets function, using Takeuti and Zaring's notation (𝑅1). Starting with the empty set, this function builds up layers of sets where the next layer is the power set of the previous layer (and the union of previous layers when the argument is a limit ordinal). Using the Axiom of Regularity, we can show that any set whatsoever belongs to one of the layers of this hierarchy (see tz9.13 8692). Our definition expresses Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76 in a closed form, from which we derive the recursive definition as theorems r10 8669, r1suc 8671, and r1lim 8673. Theorem r1val1 8687 shows a recursive definition that works for all values, and theorems r1val2 8738 and r1val3 8739 show the value expressed in terms of rank. Other notations for this function are R with the argument as a subscript (Equation 3.1 of [BellMachover] p. 477), V with a subscript (Definition of [Enderton] p. 202), M with a subscript (Definition 15.19 of [Monk1] p. 113), the capital Greek letter psi (Definition of [Mendelson] p. 281), and bold-face R (Definition 2.1 of [Kunen] p. 95). (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-2003.)
𝑅1 = rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ 𝒫 𝑥), ∅)

Definitiondf-rank 8666* Define the rank function. See rankval 8717, rankval2 8719, rankval3 8741, or rankval4 8768 its value. The rank is a kind of "inverse" of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function 𝑅1: given a set, it returns an ordinal number telling us the smallest layer of the hierarchy to which the set belongs. Based on Definition 9.14 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 79. Theorem rankid 8734 illustrates the "inverse" concept. Another nice theorem showing the relationship is rankr1a 8737. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2003.)
rank = (𝑥 ∈ V ↦ {𝑦 ∈ On ∣ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑅1‘suc 𝑦)})

Theoremr1funlim 8667 The cumulative hierarchy of sets function is a function on a limit ordinal. (This weak form of r1fnon 8668 avoids ax-rep 4804.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(Fun 𝑅1 ∧ Lim dom 𝑅1)

Theoremr1fnon 8668 The cumulative hierarchy of sets function is a function on the class of ordinal numbers. (Contributed by NM, 5-Oct-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2013.)
𝑅1 Fn On

Theoremr10 8669 Value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function at . Part of Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76. (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2013.)
(𝑅1‘∅) = ∅

Theoremr1sucg 8670 Value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function at a successor ordinal. Part of Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ dom 𝑅1 → (𝑅1‘suc 𝐴) = 𝒫 (𝑅1𝐴))

Theoremr1suc 8671 Value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function at a successor ordinal. Part of Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76. (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ On → (𝑅1‘suc 𝐴) = 𝒫 (𝑅1𝐴))

Theoremr1limg 8672* Value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function at a limit ordinal. Part of Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ dom 𝑅1 ∧ Lim 𝐴) → (𝑅1𝐴) = 𝑥𝐴 (𝑅1𝑥))

Theoremr1lim 8673* Value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function at a limit ordinal. Part of Definition 9.9 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 76. (Contributed by NM, 4-Oct-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴𝐵 ∧ Lim 𝐴) → (𝑅1𝐴) = 𝑥𝐴 (𝑅1𝑥))

Theoremr1fin 8674 The first ω levels of the cumulative hierarchy are all finite. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-May-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝑅1𝐴) ∈ Fin)

Theoremr1sdom 8675 Each stage in the cumulative hierarchy is strictly larger than the last. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ On ∧ 𝐵𝐴) → (𝑅1𝐵) ≺ (𝑅1𝐴))

Theoremr111 8676 The cumulative hierarchy is a one-to-one function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2013.)
𝑅1:On–1-1→V

Theoremr1tr 8677 The cumulative hierarchy of sets is transitive. Lemma 7T of [Enderton] p. 202. (Contributed by NM, 8-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
Tr (𝑅1𝐴)

Theoremr1tr2 8678 The union of a cumulative hierarchy of sets at ordinal 𝐴 is a subset of the hierarchy at 𝐴. JFM CLASSES1 th. 40. (Contributed by FL, 20-Apr-2011.)
(𝑅1𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅1𝐴)

Theoremr1ordg 8679 Ordering relation for the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Part of Proposition 9.10(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 77. (Contributed by NM, 8-Sep-2003.)
(𝐵 ∈ dom 𝑅1 → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑅1𝐴) ∈ (𝑅1𝐵)))

Theoremr1ord3g 8680 Ordering relation for the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Part of Theorem 3.3(i) of [BellMachover] p. 478. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.)
((𝐴 ∈ dom 𝑅1𝐵 ∈ dom 𝑅1) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑅1𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅1𝐵)))

Theoremr1ord 8681 Ordering relation for the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Part of Proposition 9.10(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 77. (Contributed by NM, 8-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝐵 ∈ On → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑅1𝐴) ∈ (𝑅1𝐵)))

Theoremr1ord2 8682 Ordering relation for the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Part of Proposition 9.10(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 77. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.)
(𝐵 ∈ On → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑅1𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅1𝐵)))

Theoremr1ord3 8683 Ordering relation for the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Part of Theorem 3.3(i) of [BellMachover] p. 478. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.)
((𝐴 ∈ On ∧ 𝐵 ∈ On) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑅1𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅1𝐵)))

Theoremr1sssuc 8684 The value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function is a subset of its value at the successor. JFM CLASSES1 Th. 39. (Contributed by FL, 20-Apr-2011.)
(𝐴 ∈ On → (𝑅1𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅1‘suc 𝐴))

Theoremr1pwss 8685 Each set of the cumulative hierarchy is closed under subsets. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝐵) → 𝒫 𝐴 ⊆ (𝑅1𝐵))

Theoremr1sscl 8686 Each set of the cumulative hierarchy is closed under subsets. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝐵) ∧ 𝐶𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ (𝑅1𝐵))

Theoremr1val1 8687* The value of the cumulative hierarchy of sets function expressed recursively. Theorem 7Q of [Enderton] p. 202. (Contributed by NM, 25-Nov-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ dom 𝑅1 → (𝑅1𝐴) = 𝑥𝐴 𝒫 (𝑅1𝑥))

Theoremtz9.12lem1 8688* Lemma for tz9.12 8691. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Sep-2015.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐹 = (𝑧 ∈ V ↦ {𝑣 ∈ On ∣ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑅1𝑣)})       (𝐹𝐴) ⊆ On

Theoremtz9.12lem2 8689* Lemma for tz9.12 8691. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐹 = (𝑧 ∈ V ↦ {𝑣 ∈ On ∣ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑅1𝑣)})       suc (𝐹𝐴) ∈ On

Theoremtz9.12lem3 8690* Lemma for tz9.12 8691. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Sep-2015.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐹 = (𝑧 ∈ V ↦ {𝑣 ∈ On ∣ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑅1𝑣)})       (∀𝑥𝐴𝑦 ∈ On 𝑥 ∈ (𝑅1𝑦) → 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1‘suc suc (𝐹𝐴)))

Theoremtz9.12 8691* A set is well-founded if all of its elements are well-founded. Proposition 9.12 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 78. The main proof consists of tz9.12lem1 8688 through tz9.12lem3 8690. (Contributed by NM, 22-Sep-2003.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (∀𝑥𝐴𝑦 ∈ On 𝑥 ∈ (𝑅1𝑦) → ∃𝑦 ∈ On 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝑦))

Theoremtz9.13 8692* Every set is well-founded, assuming the Axiom of Regularity. In other words, every set belongs to a layer of the cumulative hierarchy of sets. Proposition 9.13 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 78. (Contributed by NM, 23-Sep-2003.)
𝐴 ∈ V       𝑥 ∈ On 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝑥)

Theoremtz9.13g 8693* Every set is well-founded, assuming the Axiom of Regularity. Proposition 9.13 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 78. This variant of tz9.13 8692 expresses the class existence requirement as an antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 4-Oct-2003.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ∃𝑥 ∈ On 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝑥))

Theoremrankwflemb 8694* Two ways of saying a set is well-founded. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 (𝑅1 “ On) ↔ ∃𝑥 ∈ On 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1‘suc 𝑥))

Theoremrankf 8695 The domain and range of the rank function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Sep-2013.)
rank: (𝑅1 “ On)⟶On

Theoremrankon 8696 The rank of a set is an ordinal number. Proposition 9.15(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 79. (Contributed by NM, 5-Oct-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Sep-2013.)
(rank‘𝐴) ∈ On

Theoremr1elwf 8697 Any member of the cumulative hierarchy is well-founded. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝐵) → 𝐴 (𝑅1 “ On))

Theoremrankvalb 8698* Value of the rank function. Definition 9.14 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 79 (proved as a theorem from our definition). This variant of rankval 8717 does not use Regularity, and so requires the assumption that 𝐴 is in the range of 𝑅1. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2003.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2013.)
(𝐴 (𝑅1 “ On) → (rank‘𝐴) = {𝑥 ∈ On ∣ 𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1‘suc 𝑥)})

Theoremrankr1ai 8699 One direction of rankr1a 8737. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ (𝑅1𝐵) → (rank‘𝐴) ∈ 𝐵)

Theoremrankvaln 8700 Value of the rank function at a non-well-founded set. (The antecedent is always false under Foundation, by unir1 8714, unless 𝐴 is a proper class.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Mar-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2013.)
𝐴 (𝑅1 “ On) → (rank‘𝐴) = ∅)

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78 7701-7800 79 7801-7900 80 7901-8000 81 8001-8100 82 8101-8200 83 8201-8300 84 8301-8400 85 8401-8500 86 8501-8600 87 8601-8700 88 8701-8800 89 8801-8900 90 8901-9000 91 9001-9100 92 9101-9200 93 9201-9300 94 9301-9400 95 9401-9500 96 9501-9600 97 9601-9700 98 9701-9800 99 9801-9900 100 9901-10000 101 10001-10100 102 10101-10200 103 10201-10300 104 10301-10400 105 10401-10500 106 10501-10600 107 10601-10700 108 10701-10800 109 10801-10900 110 10901-11000 111 11001-11100 112 11101-11200 113 11201-11300 114 11301-11400 115 11401-11500 116 11501-11600 117 11601-11700 118 11701-11800 119 11801-11900 120 11901-12000 121 12001-12100 122 12101-12200 123 12201-12300 124 12301-12400 125 12401-12500 126 12501-12600 127 12601-12700 128 12701-12800 129 12801-12900 130 12901-13000 131 13001-13100 132 13101-13200 133 13201-13300 134 13301-13400 135 13401-13500 136 13501-13600 137 13601-13700 138 13701-13800 139 13801-13900 140 13901-14000 141 14001-14100 142 14101-14200 143 14201-14300 144 14301-14400 145 14401-14500 146 14501-14600 147 14601-14700 148 14701-14800 149 14801-14900 150 14901-15000 151 15001-15100 152 15101-15200 153 15201-15300 154 15301-15400 155 15401-15500 156 15501-15600 157 15601-15700 158 15701-15800 159 15801-15900 160 15901-16000 161 16001-16100 162 16101-16200 163 16201-16300 164 16301-16400 165 16401-16500 166 16501-16600 167 16601-16700 168 16701-16800 169 16801-16900 170 16901-17000 171 17001-17100 172 17101-17200 173 17201-17300 174 17301-17400 175 17401-17500 176 17501-17600 177 17601-17700 178 17701-17800 179 17801-17900 180 17901-18000 181 18001-18100 182 18101-18200 183 18201-18300 184 18301-18400 185 18401-18500 186 18501-18600 187 18601-18700 188 18701-18800 189 18801-18900 190 18901-19000 191 19001-19100 192 19101-19200 193 19201-19300 194 19301-19400 195 19401-19500 196 19501-19600 197 19601-19700 198 19701-19800 199 19801-19900 200 19901-20000 201 20001-20100 202 20101-20200 203 20201-20300 204 20301-20400 205 20401-20500 206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42879
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