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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 42701-42800   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremlincsumscmcl 42701 The sum of a linear combination and a multiplication of a linear combination with a scalar is a linear combination. (Contributed by AV, 11-Apr-2019.)
· = ( ·𝑠𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Base‘(Scalar‘𝑀))    &    + = (+g𝑀)       (((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀)) ∧ (𝐶𝑅𝐷 ∈ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉))) → ((𝐶 · 𝐷) + 𝐵) ∈ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉))
 
Theoremlincolss 42702 According to the statement in [Lang] p. 129, the set (LSubSp‘𝑀) of all linear combinations of a set of vectors V is a submodule (generated by V) of the module M. The elements of V are called generators of (LSubSp‘𝑀). (Contributed by AV, 12-Apr-2019.)
((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀)) → (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉) ∈ (LSubSp‘𝑀))
 
Theoremellcoellss 42703* Every linear combination of a subset of a linear subspace is also contained in the linear subspace. (Contributed by AV, 20-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (LSubSp‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑉𝑆) → ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉)𝑥𝑆)
 
Theoremlcoss 42704 A set of vectors of a module is a subset of the set of all linear combinations of the set. (Contributed by AV, 18-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀)) → 𝑉 ⊆ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉))
 
Theoremlspsslco 42705 Lemma for lspeqlco 42707. (Contributed by AV, 17-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → ((LSpan‘𝑀)‘𝑉) ⊆ (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉))
 
Theoremlcosslsp 42706 Lemma for lspeqlco 42707. (Contributed by AV, 20-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉) ⊆ ((LSpan‘𝑀)‘𝑉))
 
Theoremlspeqlco 42707 Equivalence of a span of a set of vectors of a left module defined as the intersection of all linear subspaces which each contain every vector in that set ( see df-lsp 19145) and as the set of all linear combinations of the vectors of the set with finite support. (Contributed by AV, 20-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑉 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → (𝑀 LinCo 𝑉) = ((LSpan‘𝑀)‘𝑉))
 
20.35.16.3  Linear independency

According to the definition in [Lang] p. 129: "A subset S of a module M is said to be linearly independent (over [the ring] A) if whenever we have a linear combination ∑x ∈S axx which is equal to 0, then ax=0 for all x∈S.". This definition does not care for the finiteness of the set S (because the definition of a linear combination in [Lang] p.129 does already assure that only a finite number of coefficients can be 0 in the sum). Our definition df-lininds 42710 does also neither claim that the subset must be finite, nor that almost all coefficients within the linear combination are 0. If this is required, it must be explicitly stated as precondition in the corresponding theorems.

Usually, the linear independency is defined for vector spaces, see Wikipedia ("Linear independence", 15-Apr-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_independence): "In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be linearly dependent if at least one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be linearly independent.". Furthermore, "In order to allow the number of linearly independent vectors in a vector space to be countably infinite, it is useful to define linear dependence as follows. More generally, let V be a vector space over a field K, and let {vi | i∈I} be a family of elements of V. The family is linearly dependent over K if there exists a finite family {aj | j∈J} of elements of K, all nonzero, such that ∑j∈J ajvj=0. A set X of elements of V is linearly independent if the corresponding family{x}x∈X is linearly independent".
Remark 1: There are already definitions of (linearly) independent families (df-lindf 20318) and (linearly) independent sets (df-linds 20319). These definitions are based on the principle "of vectors, no nonzero multiple of which can be expressed as a linear combination of other elements" or (see lbsind2 19254) "every element is not in the span of the remainder of the [set]". The equivalence of the definitions df-linds 20319 and df-lininds 42710 for (linear) independency for (left) modules is shown in lindslininds 42732.
Remark 2: Subsets of the base set of a (left) module are linearly dependent if they are not linearly indepent (see df-lindeps 42712) or, according to Wikipedia, "if at least one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others", see islindeps2 42751. The reversed implication is not valid for arbitrary modules (but for arbitrary vector spaces), because it requires a division by a coefficient. Therefore, the definition of Wikipedia is equivalent with our definition for (left) vector spaces (see isldepslvec2 42753) and not for (left) modules in general.

 
Syntaxclininds 42708 Extend class notation with the relation between a module and its linearly independent subsets.
class linIndS
 
Syntaxclindeps 42709 Extend class notation with the relation between a module and its linearly dependent subsets.
class linDepS
 
Definitiondf-lininds 42710* Define the relation between a module and its linearly independent subsets. (Contributed by AV, 12-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
linIndS = {⟨𝑠, 𝑚⟩ ∣ (𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑚) ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ ((Base‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ↑𝑚 𝑠)((𝑓 finSupp (0g‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑚)𝑠) = (0g𝑚)) → ∀𝑥𝑠 (𝑓𝑥) = (0g‘(Scalar‘𝑚))))}
 
Theoremrellininds 42711 The class defining the relation between a module and its linearly independent subsets is a relation. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.)
Rel linIndS
 
Definitiondf-lindeps 42712* Define the relation between a module and its linearly dependent subsets. (Contributed by AV, 26-Apr-2019.)
linDepS = {⟨𝑠, 𝑚⟩ ∣ ¬ 𝑠 linIndS 𝑚}
 
Theoremlinindsv 42713 The classes of the module and its linearly independent subsets are sets. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.)
(𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 → (𝑆 ∈ V ∧ 𝑀 ∈ V))
 
Theoremislininds 42714* The property of being a linearly independent subset. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑆𝑉𝑀𝑊) → (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 ↔ (𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 ))))
 
Theoremlinindsi 42715* The implications of being a linearly independent subset. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 → (𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 )))
 
Theoremlinindslinci 42716* The implications of being a linearly independent subset and a linear combination of this subset being 0. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ 𝐹 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝐹( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍)) → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝐹𝑥) = 0 )
 
Theoremislinindfis 42717* The property of being a linearly independent finite subset. (Contributed by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑆 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑀𝑊) → (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 ↔ (𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍 → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 ))))
 
Theoremislinindfiss 42718* The property of being a linearly independent finite subset. (Contributed by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑀𝑊𝑆 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 ↔ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍 → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 )))
 
Theoremlinindscl 42719 A linearly independent set is a subset of (the base set of) a module. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.)
(𝑆 linIndS 𝑀𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀))
 
Theoremlindepsnlininds 42720 A linearly dependent subset is not a linearly independent subset. (Contributed by AV, 26-Apr-2019.)
((𝑆𝑉𝑀𝑊) → (𝑆 linDepS 𝑀 ↔ ¬ 𝑆 linIndS 𝑀))
 
Theoremislindeps 42721* The property of being a linearly dependent subset. (Contributed by AV, 26-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑀𝑊𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → (𝑆 linDepS 𝑀 ↔ ∃𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆)(𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) ≠ 0 )))
 
Theoremlincext1 42722* Property 1 of an extension of a linear combination. (Contributed by AV, 20-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐹 = (𝑧𝑆 ↦ if(𝑧 = 𝑋, (𝑁𝑌), (𝐺𝑧)))       (((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) ∧ (𝑌𝐸𝑋𝑆𝐺 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})))) → 𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆))
 
Theoremlincext2 42723* Property 2 of an extension of a linear combination. (Contributed by AV, 20-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐹 = (𝑧𝑆 ↦ if(𝑧 = 𝑋, (𝑁𝑌), (𝐺𝑧)))       (((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) ∧ (𝑌𝐸𝑋𝑆𝐺 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}))) ∧ 𝐺 finSupp 0 ) → 𝐹 finSupp 0 )
 
Theoremlincext3 42724* Property 3 of an extension of a linear combination. (Contributed by AV, 23-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐹 = (𝑧𝑆 ↦ if(𝑧 = 𝑋, (𝑁𝑌), (𝐺𝑧)))       (((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) ∧ (𝑌𝐸𝑋𝑆𝐺 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}))) ∧ (𝐺 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑌( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑋) = (𝐺( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})))) → (𝐹( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍)
 
Theoremlindslinindsimp1 42725* Implication 1 for lindslininds 42732. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)       ((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) → ((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 )) → (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑠𝑆𝑦 ∈ (𝐵 ∖ { 0 }) ¬ (𝑦( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑠) ∈ ((LSpan‘𝑀)‘(𝑆 ∖ {𝑠})))))
 
Theoremlindslinindimp2lem1 42726* Lemma 1 for lindslinindsimp2 42731. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑌 = ((invg𝑅)‘(𝑓𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑓 ↾ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))       (((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) ∧ (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑥𝑆𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆))) → 𝑌𝐵)
 
Theoremlindslinindimp2lem2 42727* Lemma 2 for lindslinindsimp2 42731. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑌 = ((invg𝑅)‘(𝑓𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑓 ↾ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))       (((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) ∧ (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑥𝑆𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆))) → 𝐺 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥})))
 
Theoremlindslinindimp2lem3 42728* Lemma 3 for lindslinindsimp2 42731. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑌 = ((invg𝑅)‘(𝑓𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑓 ↾ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))       (((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) ∧ (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑥𝑆) ∧ (𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆) ∧ 𝑓 finSupp 0 )) → 𝐺 finSupp 0 )
 
Theoremlindslinindimp2lem4 42729* Lemma 4 for lindslinindsimp2 42731. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑌 = ((invg𝑅)‘(𝑓𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑓 ↾ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))       (((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) ∧ (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑥𝑆) ∧ (𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆) ∧ 𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍)) → (𝑀 Σg (𝑦 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ ((𝑓𝑦)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑦))) = (𝑌( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑥))
 
Theoremlindslinindsimp2lem5 42730* Lemma 5 for lindslinindsimp2 42731. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)       (((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) ∧ (𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑥𝑆)) → ((𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍)) → (∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐵 ∖ { 0 })∀𝑔 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))(¬ 𝑔 finSupp 0 ∨ ¬ (𝑦( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑥) = (𝑔( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑥}))) → (𝑓𝑥) = 0 )))
 
Theoremlindslinindsimp2 42731* Implication 2 for lindslininds 42732. (Contributed by AV, 26-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)       ((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) → ((𝑆 ⊆ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑠𝑆𝑦 ∈ (𝐵 ∖ { 0 }) ¬ (𝑦( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑠) ∈ ((LSpan‘𝑀)‘(𝑆 ∖ {𝑠}))) → (𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (𝐵𝑚 𝑆)((𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → ∀𝑥𝑆 (𝑓𝑥) = 0 ))))
 
Theoremlindslininds 42732 Equivalence of definitions df-linds 20319 and df-lininds 42710 for (linear) independency for (left) modules. (Contributed by AV, 26-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
((𝑆𝑉𝑀 ∈ LMod) → (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀𝑆 ∈ (LIndS‘𝑀)))
 
Theoremlinds0 42733 The empty set is always a linearly independet subset. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
(𝑀𝑉 → ∅ linIndS 𝑀)
 
Theoremel0ldep 42734 A set containing the zero element of a module is always linearly dependent, if the underlying ring has at least two elements. (Contributed by AV, 13-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
(((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 1 < (♯‘(Base‘(Scalar‘𝑀)))) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀) ∧ (0g𝑀) ∈ 𝑆) → 𝑆 linDepS 𝑀)
 
Theoremel0ldepsnzr 42735 A set containing the zero element of a module over a nonzero ring is always linearly dependent. (Contributed by AV, 14-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
(((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ (Scalar‘𝑀) ∈ NzRing) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀) ∧ (0g𝑀) ∈ 𝑆) → 𝑆 linDepS 𝑀)
 
Theoremlindsrng01 42736 Any subset of a module is always linearly independent if the underlying ring has at most one element. Since the underlying ring cannot be the empty set (see lmodsn0 19049), this means that the underlying ring has only one element, so it is a zero ring. (Contributed by AV, 14-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ ((♯‘𝐸) = 0 ∨ (♯‘𝐸) = 1) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → 𝑆 linIndS 𝑀)
 
Theoremlindszr 42737 Any subset of a module over a zero ring is always linearly independent. (Contributed by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ ¬ (Scalar‘𝑀) ∈ NzRing ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑀)) → 𝑆 linIndS 𝑀)
 
Theoremsnlindsntorlem 42738* Lemma for snlindsntor 42739. (Contributed by AV, 15-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝑆 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &    · = ( ·𝑠𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → (∀𝑓 ∈ (𝑆𝑚 {𝑋})((𝑓( linC ‘𝑀){𝑋}) = 𝑍 → (𝑓𝑋) = 0 ) → ∀𝑠𝑆 ((𝑠 · 𝑋) = 𝑍𝑠 = 0 )))
 
Theoremsnlindsntor 42739* A singleton is linearly independent iff it does not contain a torsion element. According to Wikipedia ("Torsion (algebra)", 15-Apr-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torsion_(algebra)): "An element m of a module M over a ring R is called a torsion element of the module if there exists a regular element r of the ring (an element that is neither a left nor a right zero divisor) that annihilates m, i.e., (𝑟 · 𝑚) = 0. In an integral domain (a commutative ring without zero divisors), every nonzero element is regular, so a torsion element of a module over an integral domain is one annihilated by a nonzero element of the integral domain." Analogously, the definition in [Lang] p. 147 states that "An element x of [a module] E [over a ring R] is called a torsion element if there exists 𝑎𝑅, 𝑎 ≠ 0, such that 𝑎 · 𝑥 = 0. This definition includes the zero element of the module. Some authors, however, exclude the zero element from the definition of torsion elements. (Contributed by AV, 14-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝑆 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &    · = ( ·𝑠𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → (∀𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ { 0 })(𝑠 · 𝑋) ≠ 𝑍 ↔ {𝑋} linIndS 𝑀))
 
Theoremldepsprlem 42740 Lemma for ldepspr 42741. (Contributed by AV, 16-Apr-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝑆 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &    · = ( ·𝑠𝑀)    &    1 = (1r𝑅)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ (𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵𝐴𝑆)) → (𝑋 = (𝐴 · 𝑌) → (( 1 · 𝑋)(+g𝑀)((𝑁𝐴) · 𝑌)) = 𝑍))
 
Theoremldepspr 42741 If a vector is a scalar multiple of another vector, the (unordered pair containing the) two vectors are linearly dependent. (Contributed by AV, 16-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝑆 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &    · = ( ·𝑠𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ (𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵𝑋𝑌)) → ((𝐴𝑆𝑋 = (𝐴 · 𝑌)) → {𝑋, 𝑌} linDepS 𝑀))
 
Theoremlincresunit3lem3 42742 Lemma 3 for lincresunit3 42749. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &    · = ( ·𝑠𝑀)       (((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵) ∧ 𝐴𝑈) → (((𝑁𝐴) · 𝑋) = ((𝑁𝐴) · 𝑌) ↔ 𝑋 = 𝑌))
 
Theoremlincresunitlem1 42743 Lemma 1 for properties of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination containing a unit as scalar. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈)) → (𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) ∈ 𝐸)
 
Theoremlincresunitlem2 42744 Lemma for properties of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination containing a unit as scalar. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       ((((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈)) ∧ 𝑌𝑆) → ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑌)) ∈ 𝐸)
 
Theoremlincresunit1 42745* Property 1 of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination containing a unit as scalar. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈)) → 𝐺 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})))
 
Theoremlincresunit2 42746* Property 2 of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination containing a unit as scalar. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈𝐹 finSupp 0 )) → 𝐺 finSupp 0 )
 
Theoremlincresunit3lem1 42747* Lemma 1 for lincresunit3 42749. (Contributed by AV, 17-May-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈𝑧 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}))) → ((𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))( ·𝑠𝑀)((𝐺𝑧)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑧)) = ((𝐹𝑧)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑧))
 
Theoremlincresunit3lem2 42748* Lemma 2 for lincresunit3 42749. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈𝐹 finSupp 0 )) → ((𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))( ·𝑠𝑀)(𝑀 Σg (𝑧 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐺𝑧)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝑧)))) = ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}))( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})))
 
Theoremlincresunit3 42749* Property 3 of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination in a vector space. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ∈ 𝑈𝐹 finSupp 0 ) ∧ (𝐹( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → (𝐺( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})) = 𝑋)
 
Theoremlincreslvec3 42750* Property 3 of a specially modified restriction of a linear combination in a vector space. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (invg𝑅)    &   𝐼 = (invr𝑅)    &    · = (.r𝑅)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑋}) ↦ ((𝐼‘(𝑁‘(𝐹𝑋))) · (𝐹𝑠)))       (((𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑀 ∈ LVec ∧ 𝑋𝑆) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 𝑆) ∧ (𝐹𝑋) ≠ 0𝐹 finSupp 0 ) ∧ (𝐹( linC ‘𝑀)𝑆) = 𝑍) → (𝐺( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑋})) = 𝑋)
 
Theoremislindeps2 42751* Conditions for being a linearly dependent subset of a (left) module over a nonzero ring. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑅 ∈ NzRing) → (∃𝑠𝑆𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑠}))(𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑠})) = 𝑠) → 𝑆 linDepS 𝑀))
 
Theoremislininds2 42752* Implication of being a linearly independent subset of a (left) module over a nonzero ring. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑀 ∈ LMod ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝑅 ∈ NzRing) → (𝑆 linIndS 𝑀 → ∀𝑠𝑆𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑠}))(¬ 𝑓 finSupp 0 ∨ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑠})) ≠ 𝑠)))
 
Theoremisldepslvec2 42753* Alternative definition of being a linearly dependent subset of a (left) vector space. In this case, the reverse implication of islindeps2 42751 holds, so that both definitions are equivalent (see theorem 1.6 in [Roman] p. 46 and the note in [Roman] p. 112: if a nontrivial linear combination of elements (where not all of the coefficients are 0) in an R-vector space is 0, then and only then each of the elements is a linear combination of the others. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝑍 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝑅 = (Scalar‘𝑀)    &   𝐸 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑀 ∈ LVec ∧ 𝑆 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵) → (∃𝑠𝑆𝑓 ∈ (𝐸𝑚 (𝑆 ∖ {𝑠}))(𝑓 finSupp 0 ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑀)(𝑆 ∖ {𝑠})) = 𝑠) ↔ 𝑆 linDepS 𝑀))
 
Theoremlindssnlvec 42754 A singleton not containing the zero element of a vector space is always linearly independent. (Contributed by AV, 16-Apr-2019.) (Revised by AV, 28-Apr-2019.)
((𝑀 ∈ LVec ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (Base‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑆 ≠ (0g𝑀)) → {𝑆} linIndS 𝑀)
 
20.35.16.4  Simple left modules and the ` ZZ `-module
 
Theoremlmod1lem1 42755* Lemma 1 for lmod1 42760. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring ∧ 𝑟 ∈ (Base‘𝑅)) → (𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼) ∈ {𝐼})
 
Theoremlmod1lem2 42756* Lemma 2 for lmod1 42760. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring ∧ 𝑟 ∈ (Base‘𝑅)) → (𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)(𝐼(+g𝑀)𝐼)) = ((𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼)(+g𝑀)(𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼)))
 
Theoremlmod1lem3 42757* Lemma 3 for lmod1 42760. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       (((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring) ∧ (𝑞 ∈ (Base‘𝑅) ∧ 𝑟 ∈ (Base‘𝑅))) → ((𝑞(+g‘(Scalar‘𝑀))𝑟)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼) = ((𝑞( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼)(+g𝑀)(𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼)))
 
Theoremlmod1lem4 42758* Lemma 4 for lmod1 42760. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       (((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring) ∧ (𝑞 ∈ (Base‘𝑅) ∧ 𝑟 ∈ (Base‘𝑅))) → ((𝑞(.r‘(Scalar‘𝑀))𝑟)( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼) = (𝑞( ·𝑠𝑀)(𝑟( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼)))
 
Theoremlmod1lem5 42759* Lemma 5 for lmod1 42760. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring) → ((1r‘(Scalar‘𝑀))( ·𝑠𝑀)𝐼) = 𝐼)
 
Theoremlmod1 42760* The (smallest) structure representing a zero module over an arbitrary ring. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), (𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑅), 𝑦 ∈ {𝐼} ↦ 𝑦)⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑅 ∈ Ring) → 𝑀 ∈ LMod)
 
Theoremlmod1zr 42761 The (smallest) structure representing a zero module over a zero ring. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝑅 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝑍}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝑍⟩, 𝑍⟩}⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝑍⟩, 𝑍⟩}⟩}    &   𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑍𝑊) → 𝑀 ∈ LMod)
 
Theoremlmod1zrnlvec 42762 There is a (left) module (a zero module) which is not a (left) vector space. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
𝑅 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝑍}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝑍⟩, 𝑍⟩}⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝑍⟩, 𝑍⟩}⟩}    &   𝑀 = ({⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩, ⟨(Scalar‘ndx), 𝑅⟩} ∪ {⟨( ·𝑠 ‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑍, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩})       ((𝐼𝑉𝑍𝑊) → 𝑀 ∉ LVec)
 
Theoremlmodn0 42763 Left modules exist. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
LMod ≠ ∅
 
Theoremzlmodzxzequa 42764 Example of an equation within the -module ℤ × ℤ (see example in [Roman] p. 112 for a linearly dependent set). (Contributed by AV, 22-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &    0 = {⟨0, 0⟩, ⟨1, 0⟩}    &    = ( ·𝑠𝑍)    &    = (-g𝑍)    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       ((2 𝐴) (3 𝐵)) = 0
 
Theoremzlmodzxznm 42765 Example of a linearly dependent set whose elements are not linear combinations of the others, see note in [Roman] p. 112). (Contributed by AV, 23-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &    0 = {⟨0, 0⟩, ⟨1, 0⟩}    &    = ( ·𝑠𝑍)    &    = (-g𝑍)    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       𝑖 ∈ ℤ ((𝑖 𝐴) ≠ 𝐵 ∧ (𝑖 𝐵) ≠ 𝐴)
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldeplem 42766 A and B are not equal. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       𝐴𝐵
 
Theoremzlmodzxzequap 42767 Example of an equation within the -module ℤ × ℤ (see example in [Roman] p. 112 for a linearly dependent set), written as a sum. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}    &    0 = {⟨0, 0⟩, ⟨1, 0⟩}    &    + = (+g𝑍)    &    = ( ·𝑠𝑍)       ((2 𝐴) + (-3 𝐵)) = 0
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldeplem1 42768 Lemma 1 for zlmodzxzldep 42772. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}    &   𝐹 = {⟨𝐴, 2⟩, ⟨𝐵, -3⟩}       𝐹 ∈ (ℤ ↑𝑚 {𝐴, 𝐵})
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldeplem2 42769 Lemma 2 for zlmodzxzldep 42772. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}    &   𝐹 = {⟨𝐴, 2⟩, ⟨𝐵, -3⟩}       𝐹 finSupp 0
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldeplem3 42770 Lemma 3 for zlmodzxzldep 42772. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}    &   𝐹 = {⟨𝐴, 2⟩, ⟨𝐵, -3⟩}       (𝐹( linC ‘𝑍){𝐴, 𝐵}) = (0g𝑍)
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldeplem4 42771* Lemma 4 for zlmodzxzldep 42772. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}    &   𝐹 = {⟨𝐴, 2⟩, ⟨𝐵, -3⟩}       𝑦 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵} (𝐹𝑦) ≠ 0
 
Theoremzlmodzxzldep 42772 { A , B } is a linearly dependent set within the -module ℤ × ℤ (see example in [Roman] p. 112). (Contributed by AV, 22-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       {𝐴, 𝐵} linDepS 𝑍
 
Theoremldepsnlinclem1 42773 Lemma 1 for ldepsnlinc 42776. (Contributed by AV, 25-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       (𝐹 ∈ ((Base‘ℤring) ↑𝑚 {𝐵}) → (𝐹( linC ‘𝑍){𝐵}) ≠ 𝐴)
 
Theoremldepsnlinclem2 42774 Lemma 2 for ldepsnlinc 42776. (Contributed by AV, 25-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤring freeLMod {0, 1})    &   𝐴 = {⟨0, 3⟩, ⟨1, 6⟩}    &   𝐵 = {⟨0, 2⟩, ⟨1, 4⟩}       (𝐹 ∈ ((Base‘ℤring) ↑𝑚 {𝐴}) → (𝐹( linC ‘𝑍){𝐴}) ≠ 𝐵)
 
20.35.16.5  Differences between (left) modules and (left) vector spaces
 
Theoremlvecpsslmod 42775 The class of all (left) vector spaces is a proper subclass of the class of all (left) modules. Although it is obvious (and proven by lveclmod 19279) that every left vector space is a left module, there is (at least) one left module which is no left vector space, for example the zero module over the zero ring, see lmod1zrnlvec 42762. (Contributed by AV, 29-Apr-2019.)
LVec ⊊ LMod
 
Theoremldepsnlinc 42776* The reverse implication of islindeps2 42751 does not hold for arbitrary (left) modules, see note in [Roman] p. 112: "... if a nontrivial linear combination of the elements ... in an R-module M is 0, ... where not all of the coefficients are 0, then we cannot conclude ... that one of the elements ... is a linear combination of the others." This means that there is at least one left module having a linearly dependent subset in which there is at least one element which is not a linear combinantion of the other elements of this subset. Such a left module can be constructed by using zlmodzxzequa 42764 and zlmodzxznm 42765. (Contributed by AV, 25-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑚 ∈ LMod ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑚)(𝑠 linDepS 𝑚 ∧ ∀𝑣𝑠𝑓 ∈ ((Base‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ↑𝑚 (𝑠 ∖ {𝑣}))(𝑓 finSupp (0g‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) → (𝑓( linC ‘𝑚)(𝑠 ∖ {𝑣})) ≠ 𝑣))
 
Theoremldepslinc 42777* For (left) vector spaces, isldepslvec2 42753 provides an alternative definition of being a linearly dependent subset, whereas ldepsnlinc 42776 indicates that there is not an analogous alternative definition for arbitrary (left) modules. (Contributed by AV, 25-May-2019.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jul-2019.)
(∀𝑚 ∈ LVec ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑚)(𝑠 linDepS 𝑚 ↔ ∃𝑣𝑠𝑓 ∈ ((Base‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ↑𝑚 (𝑠 ∖ {𝑣}))(𝑓 finSupp (0g‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑚)(𝑠 ∖ {𝑣})) = 𝑣)) ∧ ¬ ∀𝑚 ∈ LMod ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑚)(𝑠 linDepS 𝑚 ↔ ∃𝑣𝑠𝑓 ∈ ((Base‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ↑𝑚 (𝑠 ∖ {𝑣}))(𝑓 finSupp (0g‘(Scalar‘𝑚)) ∧ (𝑓( linC ‘𝑚)(𝑠 ∖ {𝑣})) = 𝑣)))
 
20.35.17  Complexity theory
 
20.35.17.1  Auxiliary theorems
 
Theoremoffval0 42778* Value of an operation applied to two functions. (Contributed by AV, 15-May-2020.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐺𝑊) → (𝐹𝑓 𝑅𝐺) = (𝑥 ∈ (dom 𝐹 ∩ dom 𝐺) ↦ ((𝐹𝑥)𝑅(𝐺𝑥))))
 
Theoremsuppdm 42779 If the range of a function does not contain the zero, the support of the function equals its domain. (Contributed by AV, 20-May-2020.)
(((Fun 𝐹𝐹𝑉𝑍𝑊) ∧ 𝑍 ∉ ran 𝐹) → (𝐹 supp 𝑍) = dom 𝐹)
 
Theoremeluz2cnn0n1 42780 An integer greater than 1 is a complex number not equal to 0 or 1. (Contributed by AV, 23-May-2020.)
(𝐵 ∈ (ℤ‘2) → 𝐵 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0, 1}))
 
Theoremdivge1b 42781 The ratio of a real number to a positive real number is greater than or equal to 1 iff the divisor (the positive real number) is less than or equal to the dividend (the real number). (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ+𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴𝐵 ↔ 1 ≤ (𝐵 / 𝐴)))
 
Theoremdivgt1b 42782 The ratio of a real number to a positive real number is greater than 1 iff the divisor (the positive real number) is less than the dividend (the real number). (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ+𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 < 𝐵 ↔ 1 < (𝐵 / 𝐴)))
 
Theoremltsubaddb 42783 Equivalence for the "less than" relation between differences and sums. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2020.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ℝ)) → ((𝐴𝐶) < (𝐵𝐷) ↔ (𝐴 + 𝐷) < (𝐵 + 𝐶)))
 
Theoremltsubsubb 42784 Equivalence for the "less than" relation between differences. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2020.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ℝ)) → ((𝐴𝐶) < (𝐵𝐷) ↔ (𝐴𝐵) < (𝐶𝐷)))
 
Theoremltsubadd2b 42785 Equivalence for the "less than" relation between differences and sums. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2020.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ℝ)) → ((𝐷𝐶) < (𝐵𝐴) ↔ (𝐴 + 𝐷) < (𝐵 + 𝐶)))
 
Theoremdivsub1dir 42786 Distribution of division over subtraction by 1. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ≠ 0) → ((𝐴 / 𝐵) − 1) = ((𝐴𝐵) / 𝐵))
 
Theoremexpnegico01 42787 An integer greater than 1 to the power of a negative integer is in the closed-below, open-above interval between 0 and 1. (Contributed by AV, 24-May-2020.)
((𝐵 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 < 0) → (𝐵𝑁) ∈ (0[,)1))
 
Theoremelfzolborelfzop1 42788 An element of a half-open integer interval is either equal to the left bound of the interval or an element of a half-open integer interval with a lower bound increased by 1. (Contributed by AV, 2-Jun-2020.)
(𝐾 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁) → (𝐾 = 𝑀𝐾 ∈ ((𝑀 + 1)..^𝑁)))
 
Theorempw2m1lepw2m1 42789 2 to the power of a positive integer decreased by 1 is less than or equal to 2 to the power of the integer minus 1. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
(𝐼 ∈ ℕ → (2↑(𝐼 − 1)) ≤ ((2↑𝐼) − 1))
 
Theoremzgtp1leeq 42790 If an integer is between another integer and its predecessor, the integer is equal to the other integer. (Contributed by AV, 7-Jun-2020.)
((𝐼 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ℤ) → (((𝐴 − 1) < 𝐼𝐼𝐴) → 𝐼 = 𝐴))
 
Theoremflsubz 42791 An integer can be moved in and out of the floor of a difference. (Contributed by AV, 29-May-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℤ) → (⌊‘(𝐴𝑁)) = ((⌊‘𝐴) − 𝑁))
 
20.35.17.2  The modulo (remainder) operation (extension)
 
Theoremfldivmod 42792 Expressing the floor of a division by the modulo operator. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((𝐴 − (𝐴 mod 𝐵)) / 𝐵))
 
Theoremmod0mul 42793* If an integer is 0 modulo a positive integer, this integer must be the product of another integer and the modulus. (Contributed by AV, 7-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑁) = 0 → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℤ 𝐴 = (𝑥 · 𝑁)))
 
Theoremmodn0mul 42794* If an integer is not 0 modulo a positive integer, this integer must be the sum of the product of another integer and the modulus and a positive integer less than the modulus. (Contributed by AV, 7-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑁) ≠ 0 → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℤ ∃𝑦 ∈ (1..^𝑁)𝐴 = ((𝑥 · 𝑁) + 𝑦)))
 
Theoremm1modmmod 42795 An integer decreased by 1 modulo a positive integer minus the integer modulo the same modulus is either -1 or the modulus minus 1. (Contributed by AV, 7-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (((𝐴 − 1) mod 𝑁) − (𝐴 mod 𝑁)) = if((𝐴 mod 𝑁) = 0, (𝑁 − 1), -1))
 
Theoremdifmodm1lt 42796 The difference between an integer modulo a positive integer and the integer decreased by 1 modulo the same modulus is less than the modulus decreased by 1 (if the modulus is greater than 2). This theorem would not be valid for an odd 𝐴 and 𝑁 = 2, since ((𝐴 mod 𝑁) − ((𝐴 − 1) mod 𝑁)) would be (1 − 0) = 1 which is not less than (𝑁 − 1) = 1. (Contributed by AV, 6-Jun-2012.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 2 < 𝑁) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑁) − ((𝐴 − 1) mod 𝑁)) < (𝑁 − 1))
 
20.35.17.3  Even and odd integers
 
Theoremnn0onn0ex 42797* For each odd nonnegative integer there is a nonnegative integer which, multiplied by 2 and increased by 1, results in the odd nonnegative integer. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 ∧ ((𝑁 + 1) / 2) ∈ ℕ0) → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 𝑁 = ((2 · 𝑚) + 1))
 
Theoremnn0enn0ex 42798* For each even nonnegative integer there is a nonnegative integer which, multiplied by 2, results in the even nonnegative integer. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 ∧ (𝑁 / 2) ∈ ℕ0) → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 𝑁 = (2 · 𝑚))
 
Theoremnneop 42799 A positive integer is even or odd. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝑁 / 2) ∈ ℕ ∨ ((𝑁 + 1) / 2) ∈ ℕ))
 
Theoremnneom 42800 A positive integer is even or odd. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝑁 / 2) ∈ ℕ ∨ ((𝑁 − 1) / 2) ∈ ℕ0))
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206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42900 430 42901-43000 431 43001-43033
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