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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 40501-40600   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremvolsn 40501 A singleton has 0 Lebesgue measure. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (vol‘{𝐴}) = 0)

Theoremitgvol0 40502* If the domani is negligible, the function is integrable and the integral is 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (vol*‘𝐴) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝑥𝐴𝐵) ∈ 𝐿1 ∧ ∫𝐴𝐵 d𝑥 = 0))

Theoremitgcoscmulx 40503* Exercise: the integral of 𝑥 ↦ cos𝑎𝑥 on an open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐵(,)𝐶)(cos‘(𝐴 · 𝑥)) d𝑥 = (((sin‘(𝐴 · 𝐶)) − (sin‘(𝐴 · 𝐵))) / 𝐴))

Theoremiblsplitf 40504* A version of iblsplit 40500 using bound-variable hypotheses instead of distinct variable conditions" (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (vol*‘(𝐴𝐵)) = 0)    &   (𝜑𝑈 = (𝐴𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑈) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐵𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑈𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)

Theoremibliooicc 40505* If a function is integrable on an open interval, it is integrable on the corresponding closed interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)

Theoremvolioc 40506 The measure of left open, right closed interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (vol‘(𝐴(,]𝐵)) = (𝐵𝐴))

Theoremiblspltprt 40507* If a function is integrable on any interval of a partition, then it is integrable on the whole interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑡𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘(𝑀 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → (𝑃𝑖) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → (𝑃𝑖) < (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑡 ∈ ((𝑃𝑀)[,](𝑃𝑁))) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → (𝑡 ∈ ((𝑃𝑖)[,](𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ 𝐿1)       (𝜑 → (𝑡 ∈ ((𝑃𝑀)[,](𝑃𝑁)) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ 𝐿1)

Theoremitgsincmulx 40508* Exercise: the integral of 𝑥 ↦ sin𝑎𝑥 on an open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ 0)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐵(,)𝐶)(sin‘(𝐴 · 𝑥)) d𝑥 = (((cos‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) − (cos‘(𝐴 · 𝐶))) / 𝐴))

Theoremitgsubsticclem 40509* lemma for itgsubsticc 40510. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝐾[,]𝐿) ↦ 𝐶)    &   𝐺 = (𝑢 ∈ ℝ ↦ if(𝑢 ∈ (𝐾[,]𝐿), (𝐹𝑢), if(𝑢 < 𝐾, (𝐹𝐾), (𝐹𝐿))))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→(𝐾[,]𝐿)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵) ∈ (((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ) ∩ 𝐿1))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾[,]𝐿)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐿)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑢 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝐾)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐴 = 𝐿)       (𝜑 → ⨜[𝐾𝐿]𝐶 d𝑢 = ⨜[𝑋𝑌](𝐸 · 𝐵) d𝑥)

Theoremitgsubsticc 40510* Integration by u-substitution. The main difference with respect to itgsubst 23857 is that here we consider the range of 𝐴(𝑥) to be in the closed interval (𝐾[,]𝐿). If 𝐴(𝑥) is a continuous, differentiable function from [𝑋, 𝑌] to (𝑍, 𝑊), whose derivative is continuous and integrable, and 𝐶(𝑢) is a continuous function on (𝑍, 𝑊), then the integral of 𝐶(𝑢) from 𝐾 = 𝐴(𝑋) to 𝐿 = 𝐴(𝑌) is equal to the integral of 𝐶(𝐴(𝑥)) D 𝐴(𝑥) from 𝑋 to 𝑌. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→(𝐾[,]𝐿)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑢 ∈ (𝐾[,]𝐿) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ ((𝐾[,]𝐿)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵) ∈ (((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ) ∩ 𝐿1))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑢 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝐾)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐴 = 𝐿)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → ⨜[𝐾𝐿]𝐶 d𝑢 = ⨜[𝑋𝑌](𝐸 · 𝐵) d𝑥)

Theoremitgioocnicc 40511* The integral of a piecewise continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval is equal to the integral of the continuous function 𝐺, in the corresponding closed interval. 𝐺 is equal to 𝐹 on the open interval, but it is continuous at the two boundaries, also. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:dom 𝐹⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴[,]𝐵) ⊆ dom 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐴, 𝑅, if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝑥))))       (𝜑 → (𝐺 ∈ 𝐿1 ∧ ∫(𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝐺𝑥) d𝑥 = ∫(𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥))

Theoremiblcncfioo 40512 A continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval (𝐴(,)𝐵) with a finite right limit 𝑅 in 𝐴 and a finite left limit 𝐿 in 𝐵 is integrable. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)

Theoremitgspltprt 40513* The integral splits on a given partition 𝑃. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘(𝑀 + 1)))    &   (𝜑𝑃:(𝑀...𝑁)⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → (𝑃𝑖) < (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑡 ∈ ((𝑃𝑀)[,](𝑃𝑁))) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → (𝑡 ∈ ((𝑃𝑖)[,](𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ 𝐿1)       (𝜑 → ∫((𝑃𝑀)[,](𝑃𝑁))𝐴 d𝑡 = Σ𝑖 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)∫((𝑃𝑖)[,](𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1)))𝐴 d𝑡)

Theoremitgiccshift 40514* The integral of a function, 𝐹 stays the same if its closed interval domain is shifted by 𝑇. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ ((𝐴 + 𝑇)[,](𝐵 + 𝑇)) ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑥𝑇)))       (𝜑 → ∫((𝐴 + 𝑇)[,](𝐵 + 𝑇))(𝐺𝑥) d𝑥 = ∫(𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥)

Theoremitgperiod 40515* The integral of a periodic function, with period 𝑇 stays the same if the domain of integration is shifted. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) → (𝐹‘(𝑥 + 𝑇)) = (𝐹𝑥))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → ∫((𝐴 + 𝑇)[,](𝐵 + 𝑇))(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥 = ∫(𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥)

Theoremitgsbtaddcnst 40516* Integral substitution, adding a constant to the function's argument. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → ⨜[(𝐴𝑋) → (𝐵𝑋)](𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) d𝑠 = ⨜[𝐴𝐵](𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)

Theoremitgeq2d 40517* Equality theorem for an integral. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → ∫𝐴𝐵 d𝑥 = ∫𝐴𝐶 d𝑥)

Theoremvolico 40518 The measure of left closed, right open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Oct-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (vol‘(𝐴[,)𝐵)) = if(𝐴 < 𝐵, (𝐵𝐴), 0))

Theoremsublevolico 40519 The Lebesgue measure of a left-closed, right-open interval is greater or equal to the difference of the two bounds. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐴) ≤ (vol‘(𝐴[,)𝐵)))

Theoremdmvolss 40520 Lebesgue measurable sets are subsets of Real numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
dom vol ⊆ 𝒫 ℝ

Theoremismbl3 40521* The predicate "𝐴 is Lebesgue-measurable". Similar to ismbl2 23341, but here +𝑒 is used, and the precondition (vol*‘𝑥) ∈ ℝ can be dropped. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝐴 ∈ dom vol ↔ (𝐴 ⊆ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 ℝ((vol*‘(𝑥𝐴)) +𝑒 (vol*‘(𝑥𝐴))) ≤ (vol*‘𝑥)))

Theoremvolioof 40522 The function that assigns the Lebesgue measure to open intervals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(vol ∘ (,)):(ℝ* × ℝ*)⟶(0[,]+∞)

Theoremovolsplit 40523 The Lebesgue outer measure function is finitely sub-additive: application to a set split in two parts, using addition for extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (vol*‘𝐴) ≤ ((vol*‘(𝐴𝐵)) +𝑒 (vol*‘(𝐴𝐵))))

Theoremfvvolioof 40524 The function value of the Lebesgue measure of an open interval composed with a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ* × ℝ*))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)       (𝜑 → (((vol ∘ (,)) ∘ 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (vol‘((1st ‘(𝐹𝑋))(,)(2nd ‘(𝐹𝑋)))))

Theoremvolioore 40525 The measure of an open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (vol‘(𝐴(,)𝐵)) = if(𝐴𝐵, (𝐵𝐴), 0))

Theoremfvvolicof 40526 The function value of the Lebesgue measure of a left-closed right-open interval composed with a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ* × ℝ*))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)       (𝜑 → (((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (vol‘((1st ‘(𝐹𝑋))[,)(2nd ‘(𝐹𝑋)))))

Theoremvoliooico 40527 An open interval and a left-closed, right-open interval with the same real bounds, have the same Lebesgue measure. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (vol‘(𝐴(,)𝐵)) = (vol‘(𝐴[,)𝐵)))

Theoremismbl4 40528* The predicate "𝐴 is Lebesgue-measurable". Similar to ismbl 23340, but here +𝑒 is used, and the precondition (vol*‘𝑥) ∈ ℝ can be dropped. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝐴 ∈ dom vol ↔ (𝐴 ⊆ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 ℝ(vol*‘𝑥) = ((vol*‘(𝑥𝐴)) +𝑒 (vol*‘(𝑥𝐴)))))

Theoremvolioofmpt 40529* ((vol ∘ (,)) ∘ 𝐹) expressed in map-to notation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
𝑥𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ* × ℝ*))       (𝜑 → ((vol ∘ (,)) ∘ 𝐹) = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (vol‘((1st ‘(𝐹𝑥))(,)(2nd ‘(𝐹𝑥))))))

Theoremvolicoff 40530 ((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹) expressed in map-to notation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ × ℝ*))       (𝜑 → ((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹):𝐴⟶(0[,]+∞))

Theoremvoliooicof 40531 The Lebesgue measure of open intervals is the same as the Lebesgue measure of left-closed right open intervals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ × ℝ))       (𝜑 → ((vol ∘ (,)) ∘ 𝐹) = ((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹))

Theoremvolicofmpt 40532* ((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹) expressed in map-to notation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.)
𝑥𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶(ℝ × ℝ*))       (𝜑 → ((vol ∘ [,)) ∘ 𝐹) = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (vol‘((1st ‘(𝐹𝑥))[,)(2nd ‘(𝐹𝑥))))))

Theoremvolicc 40533 The Lebesgue measure of a closed interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (vol‘(𝐴[,]𝐵)) = (𝐵𝐴))

Theoremvoliccico 40534 A closed interval and a left-closed, right-open interval with the same real bounds, have the same Lebesgue measure. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (vol‘(𝐴[,]𝐵)) = (vol‘(𝐴[,)𝐵)))

Theoremmbfdmssre 40535 The domain of a measurable function is a subset of the Reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
(𝐹 ∈ MblFn → dom 𝐹 ⊆ ℝ)

20.32.12  Stone Weierstrass theorem - real version

Theoremstoweidlem1 40536 Lemma for stoweid 40598. This lemma is used by Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90; the key step uses Bernoulli's inequality bernneq 13030. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≤ 1)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((1 − (𝐴𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)) ≤ (1 / ((𝐾 · 𝐷)↑𝑁)))

Theoremstoweidlem2 40537* lemma for stoweid 40598: here we prove that the subalgebra of continuous functions, which contains constant functions, is closed under scaling. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝐸 · (𝐹𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem3 40538* Lemma for stoweid 40598: if 𝐴 is positive and all 𝑀 terms of a finite product are larger than 𝐴, then the finite product is larger than A^M. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝐹    &   𝑖𝜑    &   𝑋 = seq1( · , 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑀)⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → 𝐴 < (𝐹𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑀) < (𝑋𝑀))

Theoremstoweidlem4 40539* Lemma for stoweid 40598: a class variable replaces a setvar variable, for constant functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝐵) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem5 40540* There exists a δ as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 0 < δ < 1 , p >= δ on 𝑇𝑈. Here 𝐷 is used to represent δ in the paper and 𝑄 to represent 𝑇𝑈 in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝐷 = if(𝐶 ≤ (1 / 2), 𝐶, (1 / 2))    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑄𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑄 𝐶 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑑(𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 < 1 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑄 𝑑 ≤ (𝑃𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem6 40541* Lemma for stoweid 40598: two class variables replace two setvar variables, for multiplication of two functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡 𝑓 = 𝐹    &   𝑡 𝑔 = 𝐺    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) · (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem7 40542* This lemma is used to prove that qn as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, (at the top of page 91), is such that qn < ε on 𝑇𝑈, and qn > 1 - ε on 𝑉. Here it is proven that, for 𝑛 large enough, 1-(k*δ/2)^n > 1 - ε , and 1/(k*δ)^n < ε. The variable 𝐴 is used to represent (k*δ) in the paper, and 𝐵 is used to represent (k*δ/2). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((1 / 𝐴)↑𝑖))    &   𝐺 = (𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝐵𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐵 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((1 − 𝐸) < (1 − (𝐵𝑛)) ∧ (1 / (𝐴𝑛)) < 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem8 40543* Lemma for stoweid 40598: two class variables replace two setvar variables, for the sum of two functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) + (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem9 40544* Lemma for stoweid 40598: here the Stone Weierstrass theorem is proven for the trivial case, T is the empty set. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
(𝜑𝑇 = ∅)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑔𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑔𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem10 40545 Lemma for stoweid 40598. This lemma is used by Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, this lemma is an application of Bernoulli's inequality. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐴 ≤ 1) → (1 − (𝑁 · 𝐴)) ≤ ((1 − 𝐴)↑𝑁))

Theoremstoweidlem11 40546* This lemma is used to prove that there is a function 𝑔 as in the proof of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92 (at the top of page 92): this lemma proves that g(t) < ( j + 1 / 3 ) * ε. Here 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑡𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑗 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋𝑖):𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡) ≤ 1)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (𝑗...𝑁)) → ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑡) < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem12 40547* Lemma for stoweid 40598. This Lemma is used by other three Lemmas. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ0)       ((𝜑𝑡𝑇) → (𝑄𝑡) = ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))

Theoremstoweidlem13 40548 Lemma for stoweid 40598. This lemma is used to prove the statement abs( f(t) - g(t) ) < 2 epsilon, in the last step of the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
(𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑗 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌 < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸))       (𝜑 → (abs‘(𝑌𝑋)) < (2 · 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem14 40549* There exists a 𝑘 as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 𝑘 is an integer and 1 < k * δ < 2. 𝐷 is used to represent δ in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐴 = {𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∣ (1 / 𝐷) < 𝑗}    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℕ (1 < (𝑘 · 𝐷) ∧ ((𝑘 · 𝐷) / 2) < 1))

Theoremstoweidlem15 40550* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function 𝑝 as in Lemma 1 from [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 𝑝 is in the subalgebra, such that 0 ≤ p ≤ 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here (𝐺𝐼) is used to represent p(t_i) in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       (((𝜑𝐼 ∈ (1...𝑀)) ∧ 𝑆𝑇) → (((𝐺𝐼)‘𝑆) ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ ((𝐺𝐼)‘𝑆) ∧ ((𝐺𝐼)‘𝑆) ≤ 1))

Theoremstoweidlem16 40551* Lemma for stoweid 40598. The subset 𝑌 of functions in the algebra 𝐴, with values in [ 0 , 1 ], is closed under multiplication. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡)))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑓𝑌𝑔𝑌) → 𝐻𝑌)

Theoremstoweidlem17 40552* This lemma proves that the function 𝑔 (as defined in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, at the end of page 91) belongs to the subalgebra. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(0...𝑁)⟶𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem18 40553* This theorem proves Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92 when A is empty, the trivial case. Here D is used to denote the set A of Lemma 2, because the variable A is used for the subalgebra. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐷    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 = ∅)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem19 40554* If a set of real functions is closed under multiplication and it contains constants, then it is closed under finite exponentiation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡)↑𝑁)) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem20 40555* If a set A of real functions from a common domain T is closed under the sum of two functions, then it is closed under the sum of a finite number of functions, indexed by G. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       (𝜑𝐹𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem21 40556* Once the Stone Weierstrass theorem has been proven for approximating nonnegative functions, then this lemma is used to extend the result to functions with (possibly) negative values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝐻    &   𝑡𝑆    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐻𝑡) + 𝑆))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑓𝐴 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐻𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝐻𝑡) − ((𝐹𝑡) − 𝑆))) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem22 40557* If a set of real functions from a common domain is closed under addition, multiplication and it contains constants, then it is closed under subtraction. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡)))    &   𝐼 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ -1)    &   𝐿 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐼𝑡) · (𝐺𝑡)))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem23 40558* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in the beginning of Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: for all t in T - U, there exists a function p in the subalgebra, such that pt ( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐺𝑡) − (𝐺𝑍)))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺𝑆) ≠ (𝐺𝑍))       (𝜑 → (𝐻𝐴 ∧ (𝐻𝑆) ≠ (𝐻𝑍) ∧ (𝐻𝑍) = 0))

Theoremstoweidlem24 40559* This lemma proves that for 𝑛 sufficiently large, qn( t ) > ( 1 - epsilon ), for all 𝑡 in 𝑉: see Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, (at the bottom of page 90). 𝑄 is used to represent qn in the paper, 𝑁 to represent 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 to represent 𝑘, 𝐷 to represent δ, and 𝐸 to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 − 𝐸) < (1 − (((𝐾 · 𝐷) / 2)↑𝑁)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))       ((𝜑𝑡𝑉) → (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑄𝑡))

Theoremstoweidlem25 40560* This lemma proves that for n sufficiently large, qn( t ) < ε, for all 𝑡 in 𝑇𝑈: see Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the top of page 91). 𝑄 is used to represent qn in the paper, 𝑁 to represent n in the paper, 𝐾 to represent k, 𝐷 to represent δ, 𝑃 to represent p, and 𝐸 to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 / ((𝐾 · 𝐷)↑𝑁)) < 𝐸)       ((𝜑𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)) → (𝑄𝑡) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem26 40561* This lemma is used to prove that there is a function 𝑔 as in the proof of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92: this lemma proves that g(t) > ( j - 4 / 3 ) * ε. Here 𝐿 is used to represnt j in the paper, 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper, 𝑆 is used to represent t, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ((𝐷𝐿) ∖ (𝐷‘(𝐿 − 1))))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋𝑖):𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑖)) → (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡))       (𝜑 → ((𝐿 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < ((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑆))

Theoremstoweidlem27 40562* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here (𝑞𝑖) is used to represent p(t_i) in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐺 = (𝑤𝑋 ↦ {𝑄𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}})    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 Fn ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝐺 ∈ V)    &   ((𝜑𝑙 ∈ ran 𝐺) → (𝑌𝑙) ∈ 𝑙)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto→ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑄       (𝜑 → ∃𝑞(𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑞:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)0 < ((𝑞𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem28 40563* There exists a δ as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 0 < delta < 1 and p >= delta on 𝑇𝑈. Here 𝑑 is used to represent δ in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑃𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑑(𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 < 1 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝑑 ≤ (𝑃𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem29 40564* When the hypothesis for the extreme value theorem hold, then the inf of the range of the function belongs to the range, it is real and it a lower bound of the range. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.) (Revised by AV, 13-Sep-2020.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ∈ ran 𝐹 ∧ inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ∈ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem30 40565* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       ((𝜑𝑆𝑇) → (𝑃𝑆) = ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem31 40566* This lemma is used to prove that there exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91: assuming that 𝑅 is a finite subset of 𝑉, 𝑥 indexes a finite set of functions in the subalgebra (of the Stone Weierstrass theorem), such that for all 𝑖 ranging in the finite indexing set, 0 ≤ xi ≤ 1, xi < ε / m on V(ti), and xi > 1 - ε / m on 𝐵. Here M is used to represent m in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, vi is used to represent V(ti). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   𝐺 = (𝑤𝑅 ↦ {𝐴 ∣ (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < (𝑡))})    &   (𝜑𝑅𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑣:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ (𝑇𝑈))    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝐺 ∈ Fin)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑣𝑖)((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem32 40567* If a set A of real functions from a common domain T is a subalgebra and it contains constants, then it is closed under the sum of a finite number of functions, indexed by G and finally scaled by a real Y. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑌 · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       (𝜑𝑃𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem33 40568* If a set of real functions from a common domain is closed under addition, multiplication and it contains constants, then it is closed under subtraction. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝜑    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem34 40569* This lemma proves that for all 𝑡 in 𝑇 there is a 𝑗 as in the proof of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the bottom of page 91 and at the top of page 92): (j-4/3) * ε < f(t) <= (j-1/3) * ε , g(t) < (j+1/3) * ε, and g(t) > (j-4/3) * ε. Here 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   𝐽 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ {𝑗 ∈ (1...𝑁) ∣ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)})    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑡𝑇) → (𝐹𝑡) < ((𝑁 − 1) · 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋𝑗):𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡) ≤ 1)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)) → ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)) → (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇𝑗 ∈ ℝ ((((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝐹𝑡) ∧ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)) ∧ (((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑡) < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ∧ ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < ((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem35 40570* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here (𝑞𝑖) is used to represent p(t_i) in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝜑    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝐺 = (𝑤𝑋 ↦ {𝑄𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}})    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚𝑞(𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑞:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑄 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑚)0 < ((𝑞𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem36 40571* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90 (at the beginning of Lemma 1): for all t in T - U, there exists a function p in the subalgebra, such that pt ( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. Z is used for t0 , S is used for t e. T - U , h is used for pt . G is used for (ht)^2 and the final h is a normalized version of G ( divided by its norm, see the variable N ). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄    &   𝑡𝐻    &   𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) · (𝐹𝑡)))    &   𝑁 = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ, < )    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐺𝑡) / 𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑆) ≠ (𝐹𝑍))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑍) = 0)       (𝜑 → ∃(𝑄 ∧ 0 < (𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem37 40572* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)       (𝜑 → (𝑃𝑍) = 0)

Theoremstoweidlem38 40573* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       ((𝜑𝑆𝑇) → (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑆) ∧ (𝑃𝑆) ≤ 1))

Theoremstoweidlem39 40574* This lemma is used to prove that there exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91: assuming that 𝑟 is a finite subset of 𝑊, 𝑥 indexes a finite set of functions in the subalgebra (of the Stone Weierstrass theorem), such that for all i ranging in the finite indexing set, 0 ≤ xi ≤ 1, xi < ε / m on V(ti), and xi > 1 - ε / m on 𝐵. Here 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper's Lemma 2 (because 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra), 𝑀 is used to represent m in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε, and vi is used to represent V(ti). 𝑊 is just a local definition, used to shorten statements. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   (𝜑𝑟 ∈ (𝒫 𝑊 ∩ Fin))    &   (𝜑𝐷 𝑟)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑣(𝑣:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑊𝐷 ran 𝑣 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑚)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑣𝑖)((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑚) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑚)) < ((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡)))))

Theoremstoweidlem40 40575* This lemma proves that qn is in the subalgebra, as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Q is used to represent qn in the paper, N is used to represent n in the paper, and M is used to represent k^n in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑𝑀))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1)    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑𝑄𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem41 40576* This lemma is used to prove that there exists x as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 0 <= x(t) <= 1 for all t in T, x(t) < epsilon for all t in V, x(t) > 1 - epsilon for all t in T \ U. Here we prove the very last step of the proof of Lemma 1: "The result follows from taking x = 1 - qn";. Here 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, and 𝑦 to represent qn in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑋 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (1 − (𝑦𝑡)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1)    &   𝑉𝑇    &   (𝜑𝑦𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑦:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑤 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑤) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem42 40577* This lemma is used to prove that 𝑥 built as in Lemma 2 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, is such that x > 1 - ε on B. Here 𝑋 is used to represent 𝑥 in the paper, and E is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝑌    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝑌) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝑌𝑔𝑌) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑋𝑡))

Theoremstoweidlem43 40578* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90 (at the beginning of Lemma 1): for all t in T - U, there exists a function pt in the subalgebra, such that pt( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. Hera Z is used for t0 , S is used for t e. T - U , h is used for pt. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑔𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑄    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑙𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑙𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑙𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑙𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑔𝐴 (𝑔𝑟) ≠ (𝑔𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ (𝑇𝑈))       (𝜑 → ∃(𝑄 ∧ 0 < (𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem44 40579* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used to represent t0 in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑗 ∈ (1...𝑀)0 < ((𝐺𝑗)‘𝑡))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem45 40580* This lemma proves that, given an appropriate 𝐾 (in another theorem we prove such a 𝐾 exists), there exists a function qn as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 ( at the top of page 91): 0 <= qn <= 1 , qn < ε on T \ U, and qn > 1 - ε on 𝑉. We use y to represent the final qn in the paper (the one with n large enough), 𝑁 to represent 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 to represent 𝑘, 𝐷 to represent δ, 𝐸 to represent ε, and 𝑃 to represent 𝑝. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 − 𝐸) < (1 − (((𝐾 · 𝐷) / 2)↑𝑁)))    &   (𝜑 → (1 / ((𝐾 · 𝐷)↑𝑁)) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem46 40581* This lemma proves that sets U(t) as defined in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, are a cover of T \ U. Using this lemma, in a later theorem we will prove that a finite subcover exists. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑄    &   𝑞𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑊)

Theoremstoweidlem47 40582* Subtracting a constant from a real continuous function gives another continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝑆    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐺 = (𝑇 × {-𝑆})    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Top)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − 𝑆)) ∈ 𝐶)

Theoremstoweidlem48 40583* This lemma is used to prove that 𝑥 built as in Lemma 2 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, is such that x < ε on 𝐴. Here 𝑋 is used to represent 𝑥 in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, and 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper (because 𝐴 is always used to represent the subalgebra). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡) < 𝐸)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑋𝑡) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem49 40584* There exists a function qn as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the top of page 91): 0 <= qn <= 1 , qn < ε on 𝑇𝑈, and qn > 1 - ε on 𝑉. Here y is used to represent the final qn in the paper (the one with n large enough), 𝑁 represents 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 represents 𝑘, 𝐷 represents δ, 𝐸 represents ε, and 𝑃 represents 𝑝. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem50 40585* This lemma proves that sets U(t) as defined in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, contain a finite subcover of T \ U. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑢(𝑢 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑢𝑊 ∧ (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑢))

Theoremstoweidlem51 40586* There exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper, because here 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra of functions. 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑤𝑉    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   ((𝜑𝑤𝑉) → 𝑤𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴 ∧ (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem52 40587* There exists a neighborood V as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Here Z is used to represent t0 in the paper, and v is used to represent V in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝑃    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑃𝑍) = 0)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑣𝐽 ((𝑍𝑣𝑣𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑣 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem53 40588* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem54 40589* There exists a function 𝑥 as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper, because here 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra of functions. 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑦𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑦(𝑦:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡))))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem55 40590* This lemma proves the existence of a function p as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here Z is used to represent t0 in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem56 40591* This theorem proves Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Here 𝑍 is used to represent t0 in the paper, 𝑣 is used to represent 𝑉 in the paper, and 𝑒 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑣𝐽 ((𝑍𝑣𝑣𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑣 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem57 40592* There exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. In this theorem, it is proven the non-trivial case (the closed set D is nonempty). Here D is used to represent A in the paper, because the variable A is used for the subalgebra of functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐷    &   𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐷) = ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem58 40593* This theorem proves Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here D is used to represent the set A of Lemma 2, because here the variable A is used for the subalgebra of functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐷    &   𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐷) = ∅)    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem59 40594* This lemma proves that there exists a function 𝑥 as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, after Lemma 2: xj is in the subalgebra, 0 <= xj <= 1, xj < ε / n on Aj (meaning A in the paper), xj > 1 - \epslon / n on Bj. Here 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper (because A is used for the subalgebra of functions), 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   𝑌 = {𝑦𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑦𝑌 ∣ (∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)(𝑦𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < (𝑦𝑡))})    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥:(0...𝑁)⟶𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁)(∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) ∧ ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem60 40595* This lemma proves that there exists a function g as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (this parte of the proof actually spans through pages 91-92): g is in the subalgebra, and for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, there is a 𝑗 such that (j-4/3)*ε < f(t) <= (j-1/3)*ε and (j-4/3)*ε < g(t) < (j+1/3)*ε. Here 𝐹 is used to represent f in the paper, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑛) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑛) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑔𝐴𝑡𝑇𝑗 ∈ ℝ ((((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝐹𝑡) ∧ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)) ∧ ((𝑔𝑡) < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ∧ ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝑔𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem61 40596* This lemma proves that there exists a function 𝑔 as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92: 𝑔 is in the subalgebra, and for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, abs( f(t) - g(t) ) < 2*ε. Here 𝐹 is used to represent f in the paper, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. For this lemma there's the further assumption that the function 𝐹 to be approximated is nonnegative (this assumption is removed in a later theorem). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑔𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑔𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < (2 · 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem62 40597* This theorem proves the Stone Weierstrass theorem for the non-trivial case in which T is nonempty. The proof follows [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.) (Revised by AV, 13-Sep-2020.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑓𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < )))    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweid 40598* This theorem proves the Stone-Weierstrass theorem for real-valued functions: let 𝐽 be a compact topology on 𝑇, and 𝐶 be the set of real continuous functions on 𝑇. Assume that 𝐴 is a subalgebra of 𝐶 (closed under addition and multiplication of functions) containing constant functions and discriminating points (if 𝑟 and 𝑡 are distinct points in 𝑇, then there exists a function in 𝐴 such that h(r) is distinct from h(t) ). Then, for any continuous function 𝐹 and for any positive real 𝐸, there exists a function 𝑓 in the subalgebra 𝐴, such that 𝑓 approximates 𝐹 up to 𝐸 (𝐸 represents the usual ε value). As a classical example, given any a, b reals, the closed interval 𝑇 = [𝑎, 𝑏] could be taken, along with the subalgebra 𝐴 of real polynomials on 𝑇, and then use this theorem to easily prove that real polynomials are dense in the standard metric space of continuous functions on [𝑎, 𝑏]. The proof and lemmas are written following [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). Some effort is put in avoiding the use of the axiom of choice. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝐴 (𝑟) ≠ (𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstowei 40599* This theorem proves the Stone-Weierstrass theorem for real-valued functions: let 𝐽 be a compact topology on 𝑇, and 𝐶 be the set of real continuous functions on 𝑇. Assume that 𝐴 is a subalgebra of 𝐶 (closed under addition and multiplication of functions) containing constant functions and discriminating points (if 𝑟 and 𝑡 are distinct points in 𝑇, then there exists a function in 𝐴 such that h(r) is distinct from h(t) ). Then, for any continuous function 𝐹 and for any positive real 𝐸, there exists a function 𝑓 in the subalgebra 𝐴, such that 𝑓 approximates 𝐹 up to 𝐸 (𝐸 represents the usual ε value). As a classical example, given any a, b reals, the closed interval 𝑇 = [𝑎, 𝑏] could be taken, along with the subalgebra 𝐴 of real polynomials on 𝑇, and then use this theorem to easily prove that real polynomials are dense in the standard metric space of continuous functions on [𝑎, 𝑏]. The proof and lemmas are written following [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). Some effort is put in avoiding the use of the axiom of choice. The deduction version of this theorem is stoweid 40598: often times it will be better to use stoweid 40598 in other proofs (but this version is probably easier to be read and understood). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝐽 ∈ Comp    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐴𝐶    &   ((𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝑥 ∈ ℝ → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡) → ∃𝐴 (𝑟) ≠ (𝑡))    &   𝐹𝐶    &   𝐸 ∈ ℝ+       𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸

20.32.13  Wallis' product for π

Theoremwallispilem1 40600* 𝐼 is monotone: increasing the exponent, the integral decreases. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑛) d𝑥)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝑁 + 1)) ≤ (𝐼𝑁))

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