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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 3901-4000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoreminvdif 3901 Intersection with universal complement. Remark in [Stoll] p. 20. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∩ (V ∖ 𝐵)) = (𝐴𝐵)

Theoremindif 3902 Intersection with class difference. Theorem 34 of [Suppes] p. 29. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∩ (𝐴𝐵)) = (𝐴𝐵)

Theoremindif2 3903 Bring an intersection in and out of a class difference. (Contributed by Jeff Hankins, 15-Jul-2009.)
(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶)

Theoremindif1 3904 Bring an intersection in and out of a class difference. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-May-2015.)
((𝐴𝐶) ∩ 𝐵) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶)

Theoremindifcom 3905 Commutation law for intersection and difference. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Feb-2013.)
(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵𝐶)) = (𝐵 ∩ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremindi 3906 Distributive law for intersection over union. Exercise 10 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 17. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2002.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∪ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremundi 3907 Distributive law for union over intersection. Exercise 11 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 17. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2002.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
(𝐴 ∪ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∩ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremindir 3908 Distributive law for intersection over union. Theorem 28 of [Suppes] p. 27. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2002.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∩ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∪ (𝐵𝐶))

Theoremundir 3909 Distributive law for union over intersection. Theorem 29 of [Suppes] p. 27. (Contributed by NM, 30-Sep-2002.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∪ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∩ (𝐵𝐶))

Theoremunineq 3910 Infer equality from equalities of union and intersection. Exercise 20 of [Enderton] p. 32 and its converse. (Contributed by NM, 10-Aug-2004.)
(((𝐴𝐶) = (𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐴𝐶) = (𝐵𝐶)) ↔ 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremuneqin 3911 Equality of union and intersection implies equality of their arguments. (Contributed by NM, 16-Apr-2006.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
((𝐴𝐵) = (𝐴𝐵) ↔ 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremdifundi 3912 Distributive law for class difference. Theorem 39 of [Suppes] p. 29. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∖ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∩ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremdifundir 3913 Distributive law for class difference. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∪ (𝐵𝐶))

Theoremdifindi 3914 Distributive law for class difference. Theorem 40 of [Suppes] p. 29. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∖ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∪ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremdifindir 3915 Distributive law for class difference. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∩ (𝐵𝐶))

Theoremindifdir 3916 Distribute intersection over difference. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 14-Apr-2011.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∩ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∖ (𝐵𝐶))

Theoremdifdif2 3917 Class difference by a class difference. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Dec-2017.)
(𝐴 ∖ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∪ (𝐴𝐶))

Theoremundm 3918 De Morgan's law for union. Theorem 5.2(13) of [Stoll] p. 19. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2004.)
(V ∖ (𝐴𝐵)) = ((V ∖ 𝐴) ∩ (V ∖ 𝐵))

Theoremindm 3919 De Morgan's law for intersection. Theorem 5.2(13') of [Stoll] p. 19. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2004.)
(V ∖ (𝐴𝐵)) = ((V ∖ 𝐴) ∪ (V ∖ 𝐵))

Theoremdifun1 3920 A relationship involving double difference and union. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∖ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶)

Theoremundif3 3921 An equality involving class union and class difference. The first equality of Exercise 13 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 17-Apr-2012.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 13-Jul-2021.)
(𝐴 ∪ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ (𝐶𝐴))

Theoremundif3OLD 3922 Obsolete proof of undif3 3921 as of 13-Jul-2021. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 17-Apr-2012.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝐴 ∪ (𝐵𝐶)) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ (𝐶𝐴))

Theoremdifin2 3923 Represent a class difference as an intersection with a larger difference. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.)
(𝐴𝐶 → (𝐴𝐵) = ((𝐶𝐵) ∩ 𝐴))

Theoremdif32 3924 Swap second and third argument of double difference. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2004.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐶) = ((𝐴𝐶) ∖ 𝐵)

Theoremdifabs 3925 Absorption-like law for class difference: you can remove a class only once. (Contributed by FL, 2-Aug-2009.)
((𝐴𝐵) ∖ 𝐵) = (𝐴𝐵)

Theoremdfsymdif3 3926 Alternate definition of the symmetric difference, given in Example 4.1 of [Stoll] p. 262 (the original definition corresponds to [Stoll] p. 13). (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.) (Revised by BJ, 30-Apr-2020.)
(𝐴𝐵) = ((𝐴𝐵) ∖ (𝐴𝐵))

2.1.13.6  Class abstractions with difference, union, and intersection of two classes

Theoremunab 3927 Union of two class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 29-Sep-2002.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
({𝑥𝜑} ∪ {𝑥𝜓}) = {𝑥 ∣ (𝜑𝜓)}

Theoreminab 3928 Intersection of two class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 29-Sep-2002.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
({𝑥𝜑} ∩ {𝑥𝜓}) = {𝑥 ∣ (𝜑𝜓)}

Theoremdifab 3929 Difference of two class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 23-Oct-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.)
({𝑥𝜑} ∖ {𝑥𝜓}) = {𝑥 ∣ (𝜑 ∧ ¬ 𝜓)}

Theoremnotab 3930 A class builder defined by a negation. (Contributed by FL, 18-Sep-2010.)
{𝑥 ∣ ¬ 𝜑} = (V ∖ {𝑥𝜑})

Theoremunrab 3931 Union of two restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 25-Mar-2004.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∪ {𝑥𝐴𝜓}) = {𝑥𝐴 ∣ (𝜑𝜓)}

Theoreminrab 3932 Intersection of two restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 1-Sep-2006.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∩ {𝑥𝐴𝜓}) = {𝑥𝐴 ∣ (𝜑𝜓)}

Theoreminrab2 3933* Intersection with a restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 19-Nov-2007.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∩ 𝐵) = {𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝐵) ∣ 𝜑}

Theoremdifrab 3934 Difference of two restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 23-Oct-2004.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∖ {𝑥𝐴𝜓}) = {𝑥𝐴 ∣ (𝜑 ∧ ¬ 𝜓)}

Theoremdfrab3 3935* Alternate definition of restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2013.)
{𝑥𝐴𝜑} = (𝐴 ∩ {𝑥𝜑})

Theoremdfrab2 3936* Alternate definition of restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 20-Sep-2003.) (Proof shortened by BJ, 22-Apr-2019.)
{𝑥𝐴𝜑} = ({𝑥𝜑} ∩ 𝐴)

Theoremnotrab 3937* Complementation of restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Sep-2015.)
(𝐴 ∖ {𝑥𝐴𝜑}) = {𝑥𝐴 ∣ ¬ 𝜑}

Theoremdfrab3ss 3938* Restricted class abstraction with a common superset. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 12-Sep-2015.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2015.)
(𝐴𝐵 → {𝑥𝐴𝜑} = (𝐴 ∩ {𝑥𝐵𝜑}))

Theoremrabun2 3939 Abstraction restricted to a union. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 5-Feb-2015.)
{𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝐵) ∣ 𝜑} = ({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∪ {𝑥𝐵𝜑})

2.1.13.7  Restricted uniqueness with difference, union, and intersection

Theoremreuss2 3940* Transfer uniqueness to a smaller subclass. (Contributed by NM, 20-Oct-2005.)
(((𝐴𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝜑𝜓)) ∧ (∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝐵 𝜓)) → ∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑)

Theoremreuss 3941* Transfer uniqueness to a smaller subclass. (Contributed by NM, 21-Aug-1999.)
((𝐴𝐵 ∧ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝐵 𝜑) → ∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑)

Theoremreuun1 3942* Transfer uniqueness to a smaller class. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2005.)
((∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝐵)(𝜑𝜓)) → ∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑)

Theoremreuun2 3943* Transfer uniqueness to a smaller or larger class. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2005.)
(¬ ∃𝑥𝐵 𝜑 → (∃!𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝐵)𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑))

Theoremreupick 3944* Restricted uniqueness "picks" a member of a subclass. (Contributed by NM, 21-Aug-1999.)
(((𝐴𝐵 ∧ (∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝐵 𝜑)) ∧ 𝜑) → (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵))

Theoremreupick3 3945* Restricted uniqueness "picks" a member of a subclass. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
((∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝜑𝜓) ∧ 𝑥𝐴) → (𝜑𝜓))

Theoremreupick2 3946* Restricted uniqueness "picks" a member of a subclass. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Dec-2013.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
(((∀𝑥𝐴 (𝜓𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜓 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝐴 𝜑) ∧ 𝑥𝐴) → (𝜑𝜓))

Theoremeuelss 3947* Transfer uniqueness of an element to a smaller subclass. (Contributed by AV, 14-Apr-2020.)
((𝐴𝐵 ∧ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴 ∧ ∃!𝑥 𝑥𝐵) → ∃!𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

2.1.14  The empty set

Syntaxc0 3948 Extend class notation to include the empty set.
class

Definitiondf-nul 3949 Define the empty set. Special case of Exercise 4.10(o) of [Mendelson] p. 231. For a more traditional definition, but requiring a dummy variable, see dfnul2 3950. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jun-1993.)
∅ = (V ∖ V)

Theoremdfnul2 3950 Alternate definition of the empty set. Definition 5.14 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. (Contributed by NM, 26-Dec-1996.)
∅ = {𝑥 ∣ ¬ 𝑥 = 𝑥}

Theoremdfnul3 3951 Alternate definition of the empty set. (Contributed by NM, 25-Mar-2004.)
∅ = {𝑥𝐴 ∣ ¬ 𝑥𝐴}

Theoremnoel 3952 The empty set has no elements. Theorem 6.14 of [Quine] p. 44. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2015.)
¬ 𝐴 ∈ ∅

Theoremn0i 3953 If a set has elements, then it is not empty. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-1993.)
(𝐵𝐴 → ¬ 𝐴 = ∅)

Theoremne0i 3954 If a set has elements, then it is not empty. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-1993.)
(𝐵𝐴𝐴 ≠ ∅)

Theoremn0ii 3955 If a set has elements, then it is not empty. Inference associated with n0i 3953. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Jul-2021.)
𝐴𝐵        ¬ 𝐵 = ∅

Theoremne0ii 3956 If a set has elements, then it is not empty. Inference associated with ne0i 3954. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐴𝐵       𝐵 ≠ ∅

Theoremvn0 3957 The universal class is not equal to the empty set. (Contributed by NM, 11-Sep-2008.)
V ≠ ∅

Theoremeq0f 3958 The empty set has no elements. Theorem 2 of [Suppes] p. 22. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Jul-2021.)
𝑥𝐴       (𝐴 = ∅ ↔ ∀𝑥 ¬ 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremneq0f 3959 A nonempty class has at least one element. Proposition 5.17(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. This version of neq0 3963 requires only that 𝑥 not be free in, rather than not occur in, 𝐴. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Jul-2021.)
𝑥𝐴       𝐴 = ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremn0f 3960 A nonempty class has at least one element. Proposition 5.17(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. This version of n0 3964 requires only that 𝑥 not be free in, rather than not occur in, 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 17-Oct-2003.)
𝑥𝐴       (𝐴 ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremn0fOLD 3961 Obsolete proof of n0f 3960 as of 15-Jul-2021. (Contributed by NM, 17-Oct-2003.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝑥𝐴       (𝐴 ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremeq0 3962* The empty set has no elements. Theorem 2 of [Suppes] p. 22. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1993.)
(𝐴 = ∅ ↔ ∀𝑥 ¬ 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremneq0 3963* A nonempty class has at least one element. Proposition 5.17(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)
𝐴 = ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremn0 3964* A nonempty class has at least one element. Proposition 5.17(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. (Contributed by NM, 29-Sep-2006.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremnel0 3965* From the general negation of membership in 𝐴, infer that 𝐴 is the empty set. (Contributed by BJ, 6-Oct-2018.)
¬ 𝑥𝐴       𝐴 = ∅

Theoremreximdva0 3966* Restricted existence deduced from nonempty class. (Contributed by NM, 1-Feb-2012.)
((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝜓)       ((𝜑𝐴 ≠ ∅) → ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜓)

Theoremrspn0 3967* Specialization for restricted generalization with a nonempty set. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Sep-2018.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → (∀𝑥𝐴 𝜑𝜑))

Theoremn0rex 3968* There is an element in a nonempty class which is an element of the class. (Contributed by AV, 17-Dec-2020.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → ∃𝑥𝐴 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremssn0rex 3969* There is an element in a class with a nonempty subclass which is an element of the subclass. (Contributed by AV, 17-Dec-2020.)
((𝐴𝐵𝐴 ≠ ∅) → ∃𝑥𝐵 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremn0moeu 3970* A case of equivalence of "at most one" and "only one". (Contributed by FL, 6-Dec-2010.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → (∃*𝑥 𝑥𝐴 ↔ ∃!𝑥 𝑥𝐴))

Theoremrex0 3971 Vacuous existential quantification is false. (Contributed by NM, 15-Oct-2003.)
¬ ∃𝑥 ∈ ∅ 𝜑

Theorem0el 3972* Membership of the empty set in another class. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jun-2004.)
(∅ ∈ 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥)

Theoremn0el 3973* Negated membership of the empty set in another class. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 25-Sep-2010.)
(¬ ∅ ∈ 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑢 𝑢𝑥)

Theoremeqeuel 3974* A condition which implies the existence of a unique element of a class. (Contributed by AV, 4-Jan-2022.)
((𝐴 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐴) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)) → ∃!𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremssdif0 3975 Subclass expressed in terms of difference. Exercise 7 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22. (Contributed by NM, 29-Apr-1994.)
(𝐴𝐵 ↔ (𝐴𝐵) = ∅)

Theoremdifn0 3976 If the difference of two sets is not empty, then the sets are not equal. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Feb-2017.)
((𝐴𝐵) ≠ ∅ → 𝐴𝐵)

Theorempssdifn0 3977 A proper subclass has a nonempty difference. (Contributed by NM, 3-May-1994.)
((𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐵) → (𝐵𝐴) ≠ ∅)

Theorempssdif 3978 A proper subclass has a nonempty difference. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴𝐵 → (𝐵𝐴) ≠ ∅)

Theoremdifin0ss 3979 Difference, intersection, and subclass relationship. (Contributed by NM, 30-Apr-1994.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Sep-2014.)
(((𝐴𝐵) ∩ 𝐶) = ∅ → (𝐶𝐴𝐶𝐵))

Theoreminssdif0 3980 Intersection, subclass, and difference relationship. (Contributed by NM, 27-Oct-1996.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴𝐵) ⊆ 𝐶 ↔ (𝐴 ∩ (𝐵𝐶)) = ∅)

Theoremdifid 3981 The difference between a class and itself is the empty set. Proposition 5.15 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. Also Theorem 32 of [Suppes] p. 28. (Contributed by NM, 22-Apr-2004.)
(𝐴𝐴) = ∅

TheoremdifidALT 3982 Alternate proof of difid 3981. (Contributed by David Abernethy, 17-Jun-2012.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝐴𝐴) = ∅

Theoremdif0 3983 The difference between a class and the empty set. Part of Exercise 4.4 of [Stoll] p. 16. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-2004.)
(𝐴 ∖ ∅) = 𝐴

Theoremab0 3984 The class of sets verifying a property is the empty class if and only if that property is a contradiction. See also abn0 3987 (from which it could be proved using as many essential proof steps but one fewer syntactic step, at the cost of depending on df-ne 2824). (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2021.)
({𝑥𝜑} = ∅ ↔ ∀𝑥 ¬ 𝜑)

Theoremdfnf5 3985 Characterization of non-freeness in a formula in terms of its extension. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2021.)
(Ⅎ𝑥𝜑 ↔ ({𝑥𝜑} = ∅ ∨ {𝑥𝜑} = V))

Theoremab0orv 3986* The class builder of a wff not containing the abstraction variable is either the empty set or the universal class. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Aug-2013.) (Revised by BJ, 22-Mar-2020.)
({𝑥𝜑} = ∅ ∨ {𝑥𝜑} = V)

Theoremabn0 3987 Nonempty class abstraction. See also ab0 3984. (Contributed by NM, 26-Dec-1996.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 11-Nov-2016.)
({𝑥𝜑} ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥𝜑)

Theoremrab0 3988 Any restricted class abstraction restricted to the empty set is empty. (Contributed by NM, 15-Oct-2003.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 14-Jul-2021.)
{𝑥 ∈ ∅ ∣ 𝜑} = ∅

Theoremrab0OLD 3989 Obsolete proof of rab0 3988 as of 14-Jul-2021. (Contributed by NM, 15-Oct-2003.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 26-Jun-2011.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
{𝑥 ∈ ∅ ∣ 𝜑} = ∅

Theoremrabeq0 3990 Condition for a restricted class abstraction to be empty. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 7-Jun-2010.) (Revised by BJ, 16-Jul-2021.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} = ∅ ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝜑)

Theoremrabn0 3991 Nonempty restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1999.) (Revised by BJ, 16-Jul-2021.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑)

Theoremrabn0OLD 3992 Obsolete proof of rabn0 3991 as of 16-Jul-2021. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-1999.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑)

Theoremrabeq0OLD 3993 Obsolete proof of rabeq0 3990 as of 16-Jul-2021. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 7-Jun-2010.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} = ∅ ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝜑)

Theoremrabxm 3994* Law of excluded middle, in terms of restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 20-Jun-2011.)
𝐴 = ({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∪ {𝑥𝐴 ∣ ¬ 𝜑})

Theoremrabnc 3995* Law of noncontradiction, in terms of restricted class abstractions. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 20-Jun-2011.)
({𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∩ {𝑥𝐴 ∣ ¬ 𝜑}) = ∅

Theoremelneldisj 3996* The set of elements 𝑠 determining classes 𝐶 (which may depend on 𝑠) containing a special element and the set of elements 𝑠 determining classes 𝐶 not containing the special element are disjoint. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 17-Dec-2021.)
𝐸 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝐶}    &   𝑁 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝐶}       (𝐸𝑁) = ∅

Theoremelnelun 3997* The union of the set of elements 𝑠 determining classes 𝐶 (which may depend on 𝑠) containing a special element and the set of elements 𝑠 determining classes 𝐶 not containing the special element yields the original set. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 17-Dec-2021.)
𝐸 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝐶}    &   𝑁 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝐶}       (𝐸𝑁) = 𝐴

TheoremelneldisjOLD 3998* Obsolete version of elneldisj 3996 as of 17-Dec-2021. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Nov-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐸 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝑠}    &   𝑁 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝑠}       (𝐸𝑁) = ∅

TheoremelnelunOLD 3999* Obsolete version of elnelun 3997 as of 17-Dec-2021. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Nov-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐸 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝑠}    &   𝑁 = {𝑠𝐴𝐵𝑠}       (𝐸𝑁) = 𝐴

Theoremun0 4000 The union of a class with the empty set is itself. Theorem 24 of [Suppes] p. 27. (Contributed by NM, 15-Jul-1993.)
(𝐴 ∪ ∅) = 𝐴

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