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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 38301-38400   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theorembrfvrcld2 38301 If two elements are connected by the reflexive closure of a relation, then they are equal or related by relation. (Contributed by RP, 21-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(r*‘𝑅)𝐵 ↔ ((𝐴 ∈ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅) ∧ 𝐴 = 𝐵) ∨ 𝐴𝑅𝐵)))

Theoremfvrcllb0d 38302 A restriction of the identity relation is a subset of the reflexive closure of a set. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅)) ⊆ (r*‘𝑅))

Theoremfvrcllb0da 38303 A restriction of the identity relation is a subset of the reflexive closure of a relation. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ 𝑅) ⊆ (r*‘𝑅))

Theoremfvrcllb1d 38304 A set is a subset of its image under the reflexive closure. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑𝑅 ⊆ (r*‘𝑅))

Theorembrtrclrec 38305* Two classes related by the indexed union of relation exponentiation over the natural numbers is equivalent to the existence of at least one number such that the two classes are related by that relationship power. (Contributed by RP, 2-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ (𝑟𝑟𝑛))       (𝑅𝑉 → (𝑋(𝐶𝑅)𝑌 ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ 𝑋(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝑌))

Theorembrrtrclrec 38306* Two classes related by the indexed union of relation exponentiation over the natural numbers (including zero) is equivalent to the existence of at least one number such that the two classes are related by that relationship power. (Contributed by RP, 2-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))       (𝑅𝑉 → (𝑋(𝐶𝑅)𝑌 ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 𝑋(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝑌))

Theorembriunov2uz 38307* Two classes related by the indexed union over operator values where the index varies the second input is equivalent to the existence of at least one index such that the two classes are related by that operator value. The index set 𝑁 is restricted to an upper range of integers. (Contributed by RP, 2-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟 𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑈𝑁 = (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝑋(𝐶𝑅)𝑌 ↔ ∃𝑛𝑁 𝑋(𝑅 𝑛)𝑌))

Theoremeliunov2uz 38308* Membership in the indexed union over operator values where the index varies the second input is equivalent to the existence of at least one index such that the element is a member of that operator value. The index set 𝑁 is restricted to an upper range of integers. (Contributed by RP, 2-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟 𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑈𝑁 = (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝑋 ∈ (𝐶𝑅) ↔ ∃𝑛𝑁 𝑋 ∈ (𝑅 𝑛)))

Theoremov2ssiunov2 38309* Any particular operator value is the subset of the index union over a set of operator values. Generalized from rtrclreclem1 13842 and rtrclreclem2 . (Contributed by RP, 4-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟 𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑈𝑁𝑉𝑀𝑁) → (𝑅 𝑀) ⊆ (𝐶𝑅))

Theoremrelexp0eq 38310 The zeroth power of relationships is the same if and only if the union of their domain and ranges is the same. (Contributed by RP, 11-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴𝑈𝐵𝑉) → ((dom 𝐴 ∪ ran 𝐴) = (dom 𝐵 ∪ ran 𝐵) ↔ (𝐴𝑟0) = (𝐵𝑟0)))

Theoremiunrelexp0 38311* Simplification of zeroth power of indexed union of powers of relations. (Contributed by RP, 19-Jun-2020.)
((𝑅𝑉𝑍 ⊆ ℕ0 ∧ ({0, 1} ∩ 𝑍) ≠ ∅) → ( 𝑥𝑍 (𝑅𝑟𝑥)↑𝑟0) = (𝑅𝑟0))

Theoremrelexpxpnnidm 38312 Any positive power of a cross product of non-disjoint sets is itself. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐴𝑈𝐵𝑉 ∧ (𝐴𝐵) ≠ ∅) → ((𝐴 × 𝐵)↑𝑟𝑁) = (𝐴 × 𝐵)))

Theoremrelexpiidm 38313 Any power of any restriction of the identity relation is itself. (Contributed by RP, 12-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (( I ↾ 𝐴)↑𝑟𝑁) = ( I ↾ 𝐴))

Theoremrelexpss1d 38314 The relational power of a subset is a subset. (Contributed by RP, 17-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑟𝑁) ⊆ (𝐵𝑟𝑁))

Theoremcomptiunov2i 38315* The composition two indexed unions is sometimes a similar indexed union. (Contributed by RP, 10-Jun-2020.)
𝑋 = (𝑎 ∈ V ↦ 𝑖𝐼 (𝑎 𝑖))    &   𝑌 = (𝑏 ∈ V ↦ 𝑗𝐽 (𝑏 𝑗))    &   𝑍 = (𝑐 ∈ V ↦ 𝑘𝐾 (𝑐 𝑘))    &   𝐼 ∈ V    &   𝐽 ∈ V    &   𝐾 = (𝐼𝐽)    &    𝑘𝐼 (𝑑 𝑘) ⊆ 𝑖𝐼 ( 𝑗𝐽 (𝑑 𝑗) 𝑖)    &    𝑘𝐽 (𝑑 𝑘) ⊆ 𝑖𝐼 ( 𝑗𝐽 (𝑑 𝑗) 𝑖)    &    𝑖𝐼 ( 𝑗𝐽 (𝑑 𝑗) 𝑖) ⊆ 𝑘 ∈ (𝐼𝐽)(𝑑 𝑘)       (𝑋𝑌) = 𝑍

Theoremcorclrcl 38316 The reflexive closure is idempotent. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(r* ∘ r*) = r*

Theoremiunrelexpmin1 38317* The indexed union of relation exponentiation over the natural numbers is the minimum transitive relation that includes the relation. (Contributed by RP, 4-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑉𝑁 = ℕ) → ∀𝑠((𝑅𝑠 ∧ (𝑠𝑠) ⊆ 𝑠) → (𝐶𝑅) ⊆ 𝑠))

Theoremrelexpmulnn 38318 With exponents limited to the counting numbers, the composition of powers of a relation is the relation raised to the product of exponents. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(((𝑅𝑉𝐼 = (𝐽 · 𝐾)) ∧ (𝐽 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐾 ∈ ℕ)) → ((𝑅𝑟𝐽)↑𝑟𝐾) = (𝑅𝑟𝐼))

Theoremrelexpmulg 38319 With ordered exponents, the composition of powers of a relation is the relation raised to the product of exponents. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(((𝑅𝑉𝐼 = (𝐽 · 𝐾) ∧ (𝐼 = 0 → 𝐽𝐾)) ∧ (𝐽 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℕ0)) → ((𝑅𝑟𝐽)↑𝑟𝐾) = (𝑅𝑟𝐼))

Theoremtrclrelexplem 38320* The union of relational powers to positive multiples of 𝑁 is a subset to the transitive closure raised to the power of 𝑁. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝑘 ∈ ℕ ((𝐷𝑟𝑘)↑𝑟𝑁) ⊆ ( 𝑗 ∈ ℕ (𝐷𝑟𝑗)↑𝑟𝑁))

Theoremiunrelexpmin2 38321* The indexed union of relation exponentiation over the natural numbers (including zero) is the minimum reflexive-transitive relation that includes the relation. (Contributed by RP, 4-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑉𝑁 = ℕ0) → ∀𝑠((( I ↾ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅)) ⊆ 𝑠𝑅𝑠 ∧ (𝑠𝑠) ⊆ 𝑠) → (𝐶𝑅) ⊆ 𝑠))

Theoremrelexp01min 38322 With exponents limited to 0 and 1, the composition of powers of a relation is the relation raised to the minimum of exponents. (Contributed by RP, 12-Jun-2020.)
(((𝑅𝑉𝐼 = if(𝐽 < 𝐾, 𝐽, 𝐾)) ∧ (𝐽 ∈ {0, 1} ∧ 𝐾 ∈ {0, 1})) → ((𝑅𝑟𝐽)↑𝑟𝐾) = (𝑅𝑟𝐼))

Theoremrelexp1idm 38323 Repeated raising a relation to the first power is idempotent. (Contributed by RP, 12-Jun-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉 → ((𝑅𝑟1)↑𝑟1) = (𝑅𝑟1))

Theoremrelexp0idm 38324 Repeated raising a relation to the zeroth power is idempotent. (Contributed by RP, 12-Jun-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉 → ((𝑅𝑟0)↑𝑟0) = (𝑅𝑟0))

Theoremrelexp0a 38325 Absorbtion law for zeroth power of a relation. (Contributed by RP, 17-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → ((𝐴𝑟𝑁)↑𝑟0) ⊆ (𝐴𝑟0))

Theoremrelexpxpmin 38326 The composition of powers of a cross-product of non-disjoint sets is the cross product raised to the minimum exponent. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(((𝐴𝑈𝐵𝑉 ∧ (𝐴𝐵) ≠ ∅) ∧ (𝐼 = if(𝐽 < 𝐾, 𝐽, 𝐾) ∧ 𝐽 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℕ0)) → (((𝐴 × 𝐵)↑𝑟𝐽)↑𝑟𝐾) = ((𝐴 × 𝐵)↑𝑟𝐼))

Theoremrelexpaddss 38327 The composition of two powers of a relation is a subset of the relation raised to the sum of those exponents. This is equality where 𝑅 is a relation as shown by relexpaddd 13838 or when the sum of the powers isn't 1 as shown by relexpaddg 13837. (Contributed by RP, 3-Jun-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝑅𝑉) → ((𝑅𝑟𝑁) ∘ (𝑅𝑟𝑀)) ⊆ (𝑅𝑟(𝑁 + 𝑀)))

Theoremiunrelexpuztr 38328* The indexed union of relation exponentiation over upper integers is a transive relation. Generalized from rtrclreclem3 13844. (Contributed by RP, 4-Jun-2020.)
𝐶 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛𝑁 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))       ((𝑅𝑉𝑁 = (ℤ𝑀) ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℕ0) → ((𝐶𝑅) ∘ (𝐶𝑅)) ⊆ (𝐶𝑅))

20.27.2.4  Transitive closure of a relation

Theoremdftrcl3 38329* Transitive closure of a relation, expressed as indexed union of powers of relations. (Contributed by RP, 5-Jun-2020.)
t+ = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ (𝑟𝑟𝑛))

Theorembrfvtrcld 38330* If two elements are connected by the transitive closure of a relation, then they are connected via 𝑛 instances the relation, for some counting number 𝑛. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ 𝐴(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝐵))

Theoremfvtrcllb1d 38331 A set is a subset of its image under the transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑𝑅 ⊆ (t+‘𝑅))

Theoremtrclfvcom 38332 The transitive closure of a relation commutes with the relation. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉 → ((t+‘𝑅) ∘ 𝑅) = (𝑅 ∘ (t+‘𝑅)))

Theoremcnvtrclfv 38333 The converse of the transitive closure is equal to the transitive closure of the converse relation. (Contributed by RP, 19-Jul-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉(t+‘𝑅) = (t+‘𝑅))

Theoremcotrcltrcl 38334 The transitive closure is idempotent. (Contributed by RP, 16-Jun-2020.)
(t+ ∘ t+) = t+

Theoremtrclimalb2 38335 Lower bound for image under a transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 1-Jul-2020.)
((𝑅𝑉 ∧ (𝑅 “ (𝐴𝐵)) ⊆ 𝐵) → ((t+‘𝑅) “ 𝐴) ⊆ 𝐵)

Theorembrtrclfv2 38336* Two ways to indicate two elements are related by the transitive closure of a relation. (Contributed by RP, 1-Jul-2020.)
((𝑋𝑈𝑌𝑉𝑅𝑊) → (𝑋(t+‘𝑅)𝑌𝑌 {𝑓 ∣ (𝑅 “ ({𝑋} ∪ 𝑓)) ⊆ 𝑓}))

Theoremtrclfvdecomr 38337 The transitive closure of a relation may be decomposed into a union of the relation and the composition of the relation with its transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉 → (t+‘𝑅) = (𝑅 ∪ ((t+‘𝑅) ∘ 𝑅)))

Theoremtrclfvdecoml 38338 The transitive closure of a relation may be decomposed into a union of the relation and the composition of the relation with its transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.)
(𝑅𝑉 → (t+‘𝑅) = (𝑅 ∪ (𝑅 ∘ (t+‘𝑅))))

TheoremdmtrclfvRP 38339 The domain of the transitive closure is equal to the domain of the relation. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝑅𝑉 → dom (t+‘𝑅) = dom 𝑅)

TheoremrntrclfvRP 38340 The range of the transitive closure is equal to the range of the relation. (Contributed by RP, 19-Jul-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝑅𝑉 → ran (t+‘𝑅) = ran 𝑅)

Theoremrntrclfv 38341 The range of the transitive closure is equal to the range of the relation. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝑅𝑉 → ran (t+‘𝑅) = ran 𝑅)

Theoremdfrtrcl3 38342* Reflexive-transitive closure of a relation, expressed as indexed union of powers of relations. Generalized from dfrtrcl2 13846. (Contributed by RP, 5-Jun-2020.)
t* = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))

Theorembrfvrtrcld 38343* If two elements are connected by the reflexive-transitive closure of a relation, then they are connected via 𝑛 instances the relation, for some natural number 𝑛. Similar of dfrtrclrec2 13841. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t*‘𝑅)𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 𝐴(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝐵))

Theoremfvrtrcllb0d 38344 A restriction of the identity relation is a subset of the reflexive-transitive closure of a set. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅)) ⊆ (t*‘𝑅))

Theoremfvrtrcllb0da 38345 A restriction of the identity relation is a subset of the reflexive-transitive closure of a relation. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ 𝑅) ⊆ (t*‘𝑅))

Theoremfvrtrcllb1d 38346 A set is a subset of its image under the reflexive-transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 22-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑𝑅 ⊆ (t*‘𝑅))

Theoremdfrtrcl4 38347 Reflexive-transitive closure of a relation, expressed as the union of the zeroth power and the transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 5-Jun-2020.)
t* = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ ((𝑟𝑟0) ∪ (t+‘𝑟)))

Theoremcorcltrcl 38348 The composition of the reflexive and transitive closures is the reflexive-transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 17-Jun-2020.)
(r* ∘ t+) = t*

Theoremcortrcltrcl 38349 Composition with the reflexive-transitive closure absorbs the transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(t* ∘ t+) = t*

Theoremcorclrtrcl 38350 Composition with the reflexive-transitive closure absorbs the reflexive closure. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(r* ∘ t*) = t*

Theoremcotrclrcl 38351 The composition of the reflexive and transitive closures is the reflexive-transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 21-Jun-2020.)
(t+ ∘ r*) = t*

Theoremcortrclrcl 38352 Composition with the reflexive-transitive closure absorbs the reflexive closure. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(t* ∘ r*) = t*

Theoremcotrclrtrcl 38353 Composition with the reflexive-transitive closure absorbs the transitive closure. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(t+ ∘ t*) = t*

Theoremcortrclrtrcl 38354 The reflexive-transitive closure is idempotent. (Contributed by RP, 13-Jun-2020.)
(t* ∘ t*) = t*

Theorems inspired by Begriffsschrift without restricting form and content to closely parallel those in [Frege1879].

Theoremfrege77d 38355 If the images of both {𝐴} and 𝑈 are subsets of 𝑈 and 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then 𝐵 is an element of 𝑈. Similar to Proposition 77 of [Frege1879] p. 62. Compare with frege77 38551. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅𝑈) ⊆ 𝑈)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅 “ {𝐴}) ⊆ 𝑈)       (𝜑𝐵𝑈)

Theoremfrege81d 38356 If the image of 𝑈 is a subset 𝑈, 𝐴 is an element of 𝑈 and 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then 𝐵 is an element of 𝑈. Similar to Proposition 81 of [Frege1879] p. 63. Compare with frege81 38555. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅𝑈) ⊆ 𝑈)       (𝜑𝐵𝑈)

Theoremfrege83d 38357 If the image of the union of 𝑈 and 𝑉 is a subset of the union of 𝑈 and 𝑉, 𝐴 is an element of 𝑈 and 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then 𝐵 is an element of the union of 𝑈 and 𝑉. Similar to Proposition 83 of [Frege1879] p. 65. Compare with frege83 38557. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅 “ (𝑈𝑉)) ⊆ (𝑈𝑉))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝑈𝑉))

Theoremfrege96d 38358 If 𝐶 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅 and 𝐵 follows 𝐶 in 𝑅, then 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 96 of [Frege1879] p. 71. Compare with frege96 38570. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)

Theoremfrege87d 38359 If the images of both {𝐴} and 𝑈 are subsets of 𝑈 and 𝐶 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅 and 𝐵 follows 𝐶 in 𝑅, then 𝐵 is an element of 𝑈. Similar to Proposition 87 of [Frege1879] p. 66. Compare with frege87 38561. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅 “ {𝐴}) ⊆ 𝑈)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑅𝑈) ⊆ 𝑈)       (𝜑𝐵𝑈)

Theoremfrege91d 38360 If 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in 𝑅 then 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 91 of [Frege1879] p. 68. Comparw with frege91 38565. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)

Theoremfrege97d 38361 If 𝐴 contains all elements after those in 𝑈 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then the image under 𝑅 of 𝐴 is a subclass of 𝐴. Similar to Proposition 97 of [Frege1879] p. 71. Compare with frege97 38571. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = ((t+‘𝑅) “ 𝑈))       (𝜑 → (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ 𝐴)

Theoremfrege98d 38362 If 𝐶 follows 𝐴 and 𝐵 follows 𝐶 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 98 of [Frege1879] p. 71. Compare with frege98 38572. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐶(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)

Theoremfrege102d 38363 If either 𝐴 and 𝐶 are the same or 𝐶 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅 and 𝐵 is the successor to 𝐶, then 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 102 of [Frege1879] p. 72. Compare with frege102 38576. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶𝐴 = 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵)

Theoremfrege106d 38364 If 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in 𝑅, then either 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 106 of [Frege1879] p. 73. Compare with frege106 38580. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))

Theoremfrege108d 38365 If either 𝐴 and 𝐶 are the same or 𝐶 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅 and 𝐵 is the successor to 𝐶, then either 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 108 of [Frege1879] p. 74. Compare with frege108 38582. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶𝐴 = 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))

Theoremfrege109d 38366 If 𝐴 contains all elements of 𝑈 and all elements after those in 𝑈 in the transitive closure of 𝑅, then the image under 𝑅 of 𝐴 is a subclass of 𝐴. Similar to Proposition 109 of [Frege1879] p. 74. Compare with frege109 38583. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = (𝑈 ∪ ((t+‘𝑅) “ 𝑈)))       (𝜑 → (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ 𝐴)

Theoremfrege114d 38367 If either 𝑅 relates 𝐴 and 𝐵 or 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same, then either 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same, 𝑅 relates 𝐴 and 𝐵, 𝑅 relates 𝐵 and 𝐴. Similar to Proposition 114 of [Frege1879] p. 76. Compare with frege114 38588. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵𝑅𝐴))

Theoremfrege111d 38368 If either 𝐴 and 𝐶 are the same or 𝐶 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅 and 𝐵 is the successor to 𝐶, then either 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same or 𝐴 follows 𝐵 or 𝐵 and 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝑅. Similar to Proposition 111 of [Frege1879] p. 75. Compare with frege111 38585. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐶𝐴 = 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝑅)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵(t+‘𝑅)𝐴))

Theoremfrege122d 38369 If 𝐹 is a function, 𝐴 is the successor of 𝑋, and 𝐵 is the successor of 𝑋, then 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same (or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝐹). Similar to Proposition 122 of [Frege1879] p. 79. Compare with frege122 38596. (Contributed by RP, 15-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 = (𝐹𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐵 = (𝐹𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝐹)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))

Theoremfrege124d 38370 If 𝐹 is a function, 𝐴 is the successor of 𝑋, and 𝐵 follows 𝑋 in the transitive closure of 𝐹, then 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the same or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝐹. Similar to Proposition 124 of [Frege1879] p. 80. Compare with frege124 38598. (Contributed by RP, 16-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ dom 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = (𝐹𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑋(t+‘𝐹)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝐹)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))

Theoremfrege126d 38371 If 𝐹 is a function, 𝐴 is the successor of 𝑋, and 𝐵 follows 𝑋 in the transitive closure of 𝐹, then (for distinct 𝐴 and 𝐵) either 𝐴 follows 𝐵 or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝐹. Similar to Proposition 126 of [Frege1879] p. 81. Compare with frege126 38600. (Contributed by RP, 16-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ dom 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = (𝐹𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝑋(t+‘𝐹)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝐹)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵(t+‘𝐹)𝐴))

Theoremfrege129d 38372 If 𝐹 is a function and (for distinct 𝐴 and 𝐵) either 𝐴 follows 𝐵 or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝐹, the successor of 𝐴 is either 𝐵 or it follows 𝐵 or it comes before 𝐵 in the transitive closure of 𝐹. Similar to Proposition 129 of [Frege1879] p. 83. Comparw with frege129 38603. (Contributed by RP, 16-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ dom 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐶 = (𝐹𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝐹)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵(t+‘𝐹)𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝐵(t+‘𝐹)𝐶𝐵 = 𝐶𝐶(t+‘𝐹)𝐵))

Theoremfrege131d 38373 If 𝐹 is a function and 𝐴 contains all elements of 𝑈 and all elements before or after those elements of 𝑈 in the transitive closure of 𝐹, then the image under 𝐹 of 𝐴 is a subclass of 𝐴. Similar to Proposition 131 of [Frege1879] p. 85. Compare with frege131 38605. (Contributed by RP, 17-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 = (𝑈 ∪ (((t+‘𝐹) “ 𝑈) ∪ ((t+‘𝐹) “ 𝑈))))    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴) ⊆ 𝐴)

Theoremfrege133d 38374 If 𝐹 is a function and 𝐴 and 𝐵 both follow 𝑋 in the transitive closure of 𝐹, then (for distinct 𝐴 and 𝐵) either 𝐴 follows 𝐵 or 𝐵 follows 𝐴 in the transitive closure of 𝐹 (or both if it loops). Similar to Proposition 133 of [Frege1879] p. 86. Compare with frege133 38607. (Contributed by RP, 18-Jul-2020.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑋(t+‘𝐹)𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋(t+‘𝐹)𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t+‘𝐹)𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵(t+‘𝐹)𝐴))

20.27.3  Propositions from _Begriffsschrift_

In 1879, Frege introduced notation for documenting formal reasoning about propositions (and classes) which covered elements of propositional logic, predicate calculus and reasoning about relations. However, due to the pitfalls of naive set theory, adapting this work for inclusion in set.mm required dividing statements about propositions from those about classes and identifying when a restriction to sets is required. For an overview comparing the details of Frege's two-dimensional notation and that used in set.mm, see mmfrege.html. See ru 3467 for discussion of an example of a class that is not a set.

Numbered propositions from [Frege1879]. ax-frege1 38401, ax-frege2 38402, ax-frege8 38420, ax-frege28 38441, ax-frege31 38445, ax-frege41 38456, frege52 (see ax-frege52a 38468, frege52b 38500, and ax-frege52c 38499 for translations), frege54 (see ax-frege54a 38473, frege54b 38504 and ax-frege54c 38503 for translations) and frege58 (see ax-frege58a 38486, ax-frege58b 38512 and frege58c 38532 for translations) are considered "core" or axioms. However, at least ax-frege8 38420 can be derived from ax-frege1 38401 and ax-frege2 38402, see axfrege8 38418.

Frege introduced implication, negation and the universal qualifier as primitives and did not in the numbered propositions use other logical connectives other than equivalence introduced in ax-frege52a 38468, frege52b 38500, and ax-frege52c 38499. In dffrege69 38543, Frege introduced 𝑅 hereditary 𝐴 to say that relation 𝑅, when restricted to operate on elements of class 𝐴, will only have elements of class 𝐴 in its domain; see df-he 38384 for a definition in terms of image and subset. In dffrege76 38550, Frege introduced notation for the concept of two sets related by the transitive closure of a relation, for which we write 𝑋(t+‘𝑅)𝑌, which requires 𝑅 to also be a set. In dffrege99 38573, Frege introduced notation for the concept of two sets either identical or related by the transitive closure of a relation, for which we write 𝑋((t+‘𝑅) ∪ I )𝑌, which is a superclass of sets related by the reflexive-transitive relation 𝑋(t*‘𝑅)𝑌. Finally, in dffrege115 38589, Frege introduced notation for the concept of a relation having the property elements in its domain pair up with only one element each in its range, for which we write Fun 𝑅 (to ignore any non-relational content of the class 𝑅). Frege did this without the expressing concept of a relation (or its transitive closure) as a class, and needed to invent conventions for discussing indeterminate propositions with two slots free and how to recognize which of the slots was domain and which was range. See mmfrege.html for details.

English translations for specific propositions lifted in part from a translation by Stefan Bauer-Mengelberg as reprinted in From Frege to Goedel: A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931. An attempt to align these propositions in the larger set.mm database has also been made. See frege77d 38355 for an example.

20.27.3.1  _Begriffsschrift_ Chapter I

Section 2 introduces the turnstile which turns an idea which may be true 𝜑 into an assertion that it does hold true 𝜑. Section 5 introduces implication, (𝜑𝜓). Section 6 introduces the single rule of interference relied upon, modus ponens ax-mp 5. Section 7 introduces negation and with in synonyms for or 𝜑𝜓), and ¬ (𝜑 → ¬ 𝜓), and two for exclusive-or corresponding to df-or 384, df-an 385, dfxor4 38375, dfxor5 38376.

Section 8 introduces the problematic notation for identity of conceptual content which must be separated into cases for biimplication (𝜑𝜓) or class equality 𝐴 = 𝐵 in this adaptation. Section 10 introduces "truth functions" for one or two variables in equally troubling notation, as the arguments may be understood to be logical predicates or collections. Here f(𝜑) is interpreted to mean if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒) where the content of the "function" is specified by the latter two argments or logical equivalent, while g(𝐴) is read as 𝐴𝐺 and h(𝐴, 𝐵) as 𝐴𝐻𝐵. This necessarily introduces a need for set theory as both 𝐴𝐺 and 𝐴𝐻𝐵 cannot hold unless 𝐴 is a set. (Also 𝐵.)

Section 11 introduces notation for generality, but there is no standard notation for generality when the variable is a proposition because it was realized after Frege that the universe of all possible propositions includes paradoxical constructions leading to the failure of naive set theory. So adopting f(𝜑) as if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒) would result in the translation of 𝜑 f (𝜑) as (𝜓𝜒). For collections, we must generalize over set variables or run into the same problems; this leads to 𝐴 g(𝐴) being translated as 𝑎𝑎𝐺 and so forth.

Under this interpreation the text of section 11 gives us sp 2091 (or simpl 472 and simpr 476 and anifp 1040 in the propositional case) and statments similar to cbvalivw 1980, ax-gen 1762, alrimiv 1895, and alrimdv 1897. These last four introduce a generality and have no useful definition in terms of propositional variables.

Section 12 introduces some combinations of primitive symbols and their human language counterparts. Using class notation, these can also be expressed without dummy variables. All are A, 𝑥𝑥𝐴, ¬ ∃𝑥¬ 𝑥𝐴 alex 1793, 𝐴 = V eqv 3236; Some are not B, ¬ ∀𝑥𝑥𝐵, 𝑥¬ 𝑥𝐵 exnal 1794, 𝐵 ⊊ V pssv 4049, 𝐵 ≠ V nev 38379; There are no C, 𝑥¬ 𝑥𝐶, ¬ ∃𝑥𝑥𝐶 alnex 1746, 𝐶 = ∅ eq0 3962; There exist D, ¬ ∀𝑥¬ 𝑥𝐷, 𝑥𝑥𝐷 df-ex 1745, ∅ ⊊ 𝐷 0pss 4046, 𝐷 ≠ ∅ n0 3964.

Notation for relations between expressions also can be written in various ways. All E are P, 𝑥(𝑥𝐸𝑥𝑃), ¬ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐸 ∧ ¬ 𝑥𝑃) dfss6 3626, 𝐸 = (𝐸𝑃) df-ss 3621, 𝐸𝑃 dfss2 3624; No F are P, 𝑥(𝑥𝐹 → ¬ 𝑥𝑃), ¬ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐹𝑥𝑃) alinexa 1810, (𝐹𝑃) = ∅ disj1 4052; Some G are not P, ¬ ∀𝑥(𝑥𝐺𝑥𝑃), 𝑥(𝑥𝐺 ∧ ¬ 𝑥𝑃) exanali 1826, (𝐺𝑃) ⊊ 𝐺 nssinpss 3889, ¬ 𝐺𝑃 nss 3696; Some H are P, ¬ ∀𝑥(𝑥𝐻 → ¬ 𝑥𝑃), 𝑥(𝑥𝐻𝑥𝑃) bj-exnalimn 32735, ∅ ⊊ (𝐻𝑃) 0pssin 38381, (𝐻𝑃) ≠ ∅ ndisj 38380.

Theoremdfxor4 38375 Express exclusive-or in terms of implication and negation. Statement in [Frege1879] p. 12. (Contributed by RP, 14-Apr-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) ↔ ¬ ((¬ 𝜑𝜓) → ¬ (𝜑 → ¬ 𝜓)))

Theoremdfxor5 38376 Express exclusive-or in terms of implication and negation. Statement in [Frege1879] p. 12. (Contributed by RP, 14-Apr-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) ↔ ¬ ((𝜑 → ¬ 𝜓) → ¬ (¬ 𝜑𝜓)))

Theoremdf3or2 38377 Express triple-or in terms of implication and negation. Statement in [Frege1879] p. 11. (Contributed by RP, 25-Jul-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓𝜒) ↔ (¬ 𝜑 → (¬ 𝜓𝜒)))

Theoremdf3an2 38378 Express triple-and in terms of implication and negation. Statement in [Frege1879] p. 12. (Contributed by RP, 25-Jul-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓𝜒) ↔ ¬ (𝜑 → (𝜓 → ¬ 𝜒)))

Theoremnev 38379* Express that not every set is in a class. (Contributed by RP, 16-Apr-2020.)
(𝐴 ≠ V ↔ ¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremndisj 38380* Express that an intersection is not empty. (Contributed by RP, 16-Apr-2020.)
((𝐴𝐵) ≠ ∅ ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵))

Theorem0pssin 38381* Express that an intersection is not empty. (Contributed by RP, 16-Apr-2020.)
(∅ ⊊ (𝐴𝐵) ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵))

20.27.3.2  _Begriffsschrift_ Notation hints

The statement 𝑅 hereditary 𝐴 means relation 𝑅 is hereditary (in the sense of Frege) in the class 𝐴 or (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ 𝐴. The former is only a slight reduction in the number of symbols, but this reduces the number of floating hypotheses needed to be checked.

As Frege was not using the language of classes or sets, this naturally differs from the set-theoretic notion that a set is hereditary in a property: that all of its elements have a property and all of their elements have the property and so-on.

Theoremrp-imass 38382 If the 𝑅-image of a class 𝐴 is a subclass of 𝐵, then the restriction of 𝑅 to 𝐴 is a subset of the Cartesian product of 𝐴 and 𝐵. (Contributed by Richard Penner, 24-Dec-2019.)
((𝑅𝐴) ⊆ 𝐵 ↔ (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ (𝐴 × 𝐵))

Syntaxwhe 38383 The property of relation 𝑅 being hereditary in class 𝐴.
wff 𝑅 hereditary 𝐴

Definitiondf-he 38384 The property of relation 𝑅 being hereditary in class 𝐴. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝑅 hereditary 𝐴 ↔ (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ 𝐴)

Theoremdfhe2 38385 The property of relation 𝑅 being hereditary in class 𝐴. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝑅 hereditary 𝐴 ↔ (𝑅𝐴) ⊆ (𝐴 × 𝐴))

Theoremdfhe3 38386* The property of relation 𝑅 being hereditary in class 𝐴. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝑅 hereditary 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥(𝑥𝐴 → ∀𝑦(𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝐴)))

Theoremheeq12 38387 Equality law for relations being herditary over a class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
((𝑅 = 𝑆𝐴 = 𝐵) → (𝑅 hereditary 𝐴𝑆 hereditary 𝐵))

Theoremheeq1 38388 Equality law for relations being herditary over a class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝑅 = 𝑆 → (𝑅 hereditary 𝐴𝑆 hereditary 𝐴))

Theoremheeq2 38389 Equality law for relations being herditary over a class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝑅 hereditary 𝐴𝑅 hereditary 𝐵))

Theoremsbcheg 38390 Distribute proper substitution through herditary relation. (Contributed by RP, 29-Jun-2020.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ([𝐴 / 𝑥]𝐵 hereditary 𝐶𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵 hereditary 𝐴 / 𝑥𝐶))

Theoremhess 38391 Subclass law for relations being herditary over a class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
(𝑆𝑅 → (𝑅 hereditary 𝐴𝑆 hereditary 𝐴))

Theoremxphe 38392 Any Cartesian product is hereditary in its second class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.) (Proof shortened by OpenAI, 3-Jul-2020.)
(𝐴 × 𝐵) hereditary 𝐵

Theorem0he 38393 The empty relation is hereditary in any class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
∅ hereditary 𝐴

Theorem0heALT 38394 The empty relation is hereditary in any class. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
∅ hereditary 𝐴

Theoremhe0 38395 Any relation is hereditary in the empty set. (Contributed by RP, 27-Mar-2020.)
𝐴 hereditary ∅

Theoremunhe1 38396 The union of two relations hereditary in a class is also hereditary in a class. (Contributed by RP, 28-Mar-2020.)
((𝑅 hereditary 𝐴𝑆 hereditary 𝐴) → (𝑅𝑆) hereditary 𝐴)

Theoremsnhesn 38397 Any singleton is hereditary in any singleton. (Contributed by RP, 28-Mar-2020.)
{⟨𝐴, 𝐴⟩} hereditary {𝐵}

Theoremidhe 38398 The identity relation is hereditary in any class. (Contributed by RP, 28-Mar-2020.)
I hereditary 𝐴

Theorempsshepw 38399 The relation between sets and their proper subsets is hereditary in the powerclass of any class. (Contributed by RP, 28-Mar-2020.)
[] hereditary 𝒫 𝐴

Theoremsshepw 38400 The relation between sets and their subsets is hereditary in the powerclass of any class. (Contributed by RP, 28-Mar-2020.)
( [] ∪ I ) hereditary 𝒫 𝐴

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