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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 31601-31700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremmthmsta 31601 A theorem is a pre-statement. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝑈 = (mThm‘𝑇)    &   𝑆 = (mPreSt‘𝑇)       𝑈𝑆

Theoremmppsthm 31602 A provable pre-statement is a theorem. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝐽 = (mPPSt‘𝑇)    &   𝑈 = (mThm‘𝑇)       𝐽𝑈

Theoremmthmblem 31603 Lemma for mthmb 31604. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝑅 = (mStRed‘𝑇)    &   𝑈 = (mThm‘𝑇)       ((𝑅𝑋) = (𝑅𝑌) → (𝑋𝑈𝑌𝑈))

Theoremmthmb 31604 If two statements have the same reduct then one is a theorem iff the other is. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝑅 = (mStRed‘𝑇)    &   𝑈 = (mThm‘𝑇)       ((𝑅𝑋) = (𝑅𝑌) → (𝑋𝑈𝑌𝑈))

Theoremmthmpps 31605 Given a theorem, there is an explicitly definable witnessing provable pre-statement for the provability of the theorem. (However, this pre-statement requires infinitely many dv conditions, which is sometimes inconvenient.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝑅 = (mStRed‘𝑇)    &   𝐽 = (mPPSt‘𝑇)    &   𝑈 = (mThm‘𝑇)    &   𝐷 = (mDV‘𝑇)    &   𝑉 = (mVars‘𝑇)    &   𝑍 = (𝑉 “ (𝐻 ∪ {𝐴}))    &   𝑀 = (𝐶 ∪ (𝐷 ∖ (𝑍 × 𝑍)))       (𝑇 ∈ mFS → (⟨𝐶, 𝐻, 𝐴⟩ ∈ 𝑈 ↔ (⟨𝑀, 𝐻, 𝐴⟩ ∈ 𝐽 ∧ (𝑅‘⟨𝑀, 𝐻, 𝐴⟩) = (𝑅‘⟨𝐶, 𝐻, 𝐴⟩))))

Theoremmclsppslem 31606* The closure is closed under application of provable pre-statements. (Compare mclsax 31592.) This theorem is what justifies the treatment of theorems as "equivalent" to axioms once they have been proven: the composition of one theorem in the proof of another yields a theorem. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝐷 = (mDV‘𝑇)    &   𝐸 = (mEx‘𝑇)    &   𝐶 = (mCls‘𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ mFS)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐸)    &   𝐽 = (mPPSt‘𝑇)    &   𝐿 = (mSubst‘𝑇)    &   𝑉 = (mVR‘𝑇)    &   𝐻 = (mVH‘𝑇)    &   𝑊 = (mVars‘𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨𝑀, 𝑂, 𝑃⟩ ∈ 𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ran 𝐿)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑂) → (𝑆𝑥) ∈ (𝐾𝐶𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑣𝑉) → (𝑆‘(𝐻𝑣)) ∈ (𝐾𝐶𝐵))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑀𝑦𝑎 ∈ (𝑊‘(𝑆‘(𝐻𝑥))) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑊‘(𝑆‘(𝐻𝑦))))) → 𝑎𝐾𝑏)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨𝑚, 𝑜, 𝑝⟩ ∈ (mAx‘𝑇))    &   (𝜑𝑠 ∈ ran 𝐿)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑠 “ (𝑜 ∪ ran 𝐻)) ⊆ (𝑆 “ (𝐾𝐶𝐵)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑤(𝑧𝑚𝑤 → ((𝑊‘(𝑠‘(𝐻𝑧))) × (𝑊‘(𝑠‘(𝐻𝑤)))) ⊆ 𝑀))       (𝜑 → (𝑠𝑝) ∈ (𝑆 “ (𝐾𝐶𝐵)))

Theoremmclspps 31607* The closure is closed under application of provable pre-statements. (Compare mclsax 31592.) This theorem is what justifies the treatment of theorems as "equivalent" to axioms once they have been proven: the composition of one theorem in the proof of another yields a theorem. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jul-2016.)
𝐷 = (mDV‘𝑇)    &   𝐸 = (mEx‘𝑇)    &   𝐶 = (mCls‘𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ mFS)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐸)    &   𝐽 = (mPPSt‘𝑇)    &   𝐿 = (mSubst‘𝑇)    &   𝑉 = (mVR‘𝑇)    &   𝐻 = (mVH‘𝑇)    &   𝑊 = (mVars‘𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨𝑀, 𝑂, 𝑃⟩ ∈ 𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ran 𝐿)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑂) → (𝑆𝑥) ∈ (𝐾𝐶𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑣𝑉) → (𝑆‘(𝐻𝑣)) ∈ (𝐾𝐶𝐵))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑀𝑦𝑎 ∈ (𝑊‘(𝑆‘(𝐻𝑥))) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑊‘(𝑆‘(𝐻𝑦))))) → 𝑎𝐾𝑏)       (𝜑 → (𝑆𝑃) ∈ (𝐾𝐶𝐵))

20.5.13  Grammatical formal systems

Syntaxcm0s 31608 Mapping expressions to statements.
class m0St

Syntaxcmsa 31609 The set of syntax axioms.
class mSA

Syntaxcmwgfs 31610 The set of weakly grammatical formal systems.
class mWGFS

Syntaxcmsy 31611 The syntax typecode function.
class mSyn

Syntaxcmesy 31612 The syntax typecode function for expressions.
class mESyn

Syntaxcmgfs 31613 The set of grammatical formal systems.
class mGFS

Syntaxcmtree 31614 The set of proof trees.
class mTree

Syntaxcmst 31615 The set of syntax trees.
class mST

Syntaxcmsax 31616 The indexing set for a syntax axiom.
class mSAX

Syntaxcmufs 31617 The set of unambiguous formal sytems.
class mUFS

Definitiondf-m0s 31618 Define a function mapping expressions to statements. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
m0St = (𝑎 ∈ V ↦ ⟨∅, ∅, 𝑎⟩)

Definitiondf-msa 31619* Define the set of syntax axioms. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mSA = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ {𝑎 ∈ (mEx‘𝑡) ∣ ((m0St‘𝑎) ∈ (mAx‘𝑡) ∧ (1st𝑎) ∈ (mVT‘𝑡) ∧ Fun ((2nd𝑎) ↾ (mVR‘𝑡)))})

Definitiondf-mwgfs 31620* Define the set of weakly grammatical formal systems. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mWGFS = {𝑡 ∈ mFS ∣ ∀𝑑𝑎((⟨𝑑, , 𝑎⟩ ∈ (mAx‘𝑡) ∧ (1st𝑎) ∈ (mVT‘𝑡)) → ∃𝑠 ∈ ran (mSubst‘𝑡)𝑎 ∈ (𝑠 “ (mSA‘𝑡)))}

Definitiondf-msyn 31621 Define the syntax typecode function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mSyn = Slot 6

Definitiondf-mtree 31622* Define the set of proof trees. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mTree = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ (𝑑 ∈ 𝒫 (mDV‘𝑡), ∈ 𝒫 (mEx‘𝑡) ↦ {𝑟 ∣ (∀𝑒 ∈ ran (mVH‘𝑡)𝑒𝑟⟨(m0St‘𝑒), ∅⟩ ∧ ∀𝑒 𝑒𝑟⟨((mStRed‘𝑡)‘⟨𝑑, , 𝑒⟩), ∅⟩ ∧ ∀𝑚𝑜𝑝(⟨𝑚, 𝑜, 𝑝⟩ ∈ (mAx‘𝑡) → ∀𝑠 ∈ ran (mSubst‘𝑡)(∀𝑥𝑦(𝑥𝑚𝑦 → (((mVars‘𝑡)‘(𝑠‘((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑥))) × ((mVars‘𝑡)‘(𝑠‘((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑦)))) ⊆ 𝑑) → ({(𝑠𝑝)} × X𝑒 ∈ (𝑜 ∪ ((mVH‘𝑡) “ ((mVars‘𝑡) “ (𝑜 ∪ {𝑝}))))(𝑟 “ {(𝑠𝑒)})) ⊆ 𝑟)))}))

Definitiondf-mst 31623 Define the function mapping syntax expressions to syntax trees. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mST = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ ((∅(mTree‘𝑡)∅) ↾ ((mEx‘𝑡) ↾ (mVT‘𝑡))))

Definitiondf-msax 31624* Define the indexing set for a syntax axiom's representation in a tree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mSAX = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ (𝑝 ∈ (mSA‘𝑡) ↦ ((mVH‘𝑡) “ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑝))))

Definitiondf-mufs 31625 Define the set of unambiguous formal systems. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mUFS = {𝑡 ∈ mGFS ∣ Fun (mST‘𝑡)}

20.5.14  Models of formal systems

Syntaxcmuv 31626 The universe of a model.
class mUV

Syntaxcmvl 31627 The set of valuations.
class mVL

Syntaxcmvsb 31628 Substitution for a valuation.
class mVSubst

Syntaxcmfsh 31629 The freshness relation of a model.
class mFresh

Syntaxcmfr 31630 The set of freshness relations.
class mFRel

Syntaxcmevl 31631 The evaluation function of a model.
class mEval

Syntaxcmdl 31632 The set of models.
class mMdl

Syntaxcusyn 31633 The syntax function applied to elements of the model.
class mUSyn

Syntaxcgmdl 31634 The set of models in a grammatical formal system.
class mGMdl

Syntaxcmitp 31635 The interpretation function of the model.
class mItp

Syntaxcmfitp 31636 The evaluation function derived from the interpretation.
class mFromItp

Definitiondf-muv 31637 Define the universe of a model. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mUV = Slot 7

Definitiondf-mfsh 31638 Define the freshness relation of a model. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mFresh = Slot 8

Definitiondf-mevl 31639 Define the evaluation function of a model. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mEval = Slot 9

Definitiondf-mvl 31640* Define the set of valuations. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mVL = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ X𝑣 ∈ (mVR‘𝑡)((mUV‘𝑡) “ {((mType‘𝑡)‘𝑣)}))

Definitiondf-mvsb 31641* Define substitution applied to a valuation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mVSubst = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ {⟨⟨𝑠, 𝑚⟩, 𝑥⟩ ∣ ((𝑠 ∈ ran (mSubst‘𝑡) ∧ 𝑚 ∈ (mVL‘𝑡)) ∧ ∀𝑣 ∈ (mVR‘𝑡)𝑚dom (mEval‘𝑡)(𝑠‘((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑣)) ∧ 𝑥 = (𝑣 ∈ (mVR‘𝑡) ↦ (𝑚(mEval‘𝑡)(𝑠‘((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑣)))))})

Definitiondf-mfrel 31642* Define the set of freshness relations. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mFRel = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ {𝑟 ∈ 𝒫 ((mUV‘𝑡) × (mUV‘𝑡)) ∣ (𝑟 = 𝑟 ∧ ∀𝑐 ∈ (mVT‘𝑡)∀𝑤 ∈ (𝒫 (mUV‘𝑡) ∩ Fin)∃𝑣 ∈ ((mUV‘𝑡) “ {𝑐})𝑤 ⊆ (𝑟 “ {𝑣}))})

Definitiondf-mdl 31643* Define the set of models of a formal system. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mMdl = {𝑡 ∈ mFS ∣ [(mUV‘𝑡) / 𝑢][(mEx‘𝑡) / 𝑥][(mVL‘𝑡) / 𝑣][(mEval‘𝑡) / 𝑛][(mFresh‘𝑡) / 𝑓]((𝑢 ⊆ ((mTC‘𝑡) × V) ∧ 𝑓 ∈ (mFRel‘𝑡) ∧ 𝑛 ∈ (𝑢pm (𝑣 × (mEx‘𝑡)))) ∧ ∀𝑚𝑣 ((∀𝑒𝑥 (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, 𝑒⟩}) ⊆ (𝑢 “ {(1st𝑒)}) ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ (mVR‘𝑡)⟨𝑚, ((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑦)⟩𝑛(𝑚𝑦) ∧ ∀𝑑𝑎(⟨𝑑, , 𝑎⟩ ∈ (mAx‘𝑡) → ((∀𝑦𝑧(𝑦𝑑𝑧 → (𝑚𝑦)𝑓(𝑚𝑧)) ∧ ⊆ (dom 𝑛 “ {𝑚})) → 𝑚dom 𝑛 𝑎))) ∧ (∀𝑠 ∈ ran (mSubst‘𝑡)∀𝑒 ∈ (mEx‘𝑡)∀𝑦(⟨𝑠, 𝑚⟩(mVSubst‘𝑡)𝑦 → (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, (𝑠𝑒)⟩}) = (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑦, 𝑒⟩})) ∧ ∀𝑝𝑣𝑒𝑥 ((𝑚 ↾ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑒)) = (𝑝 ↾ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑒)) → (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, 𝑒⟩}) = (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑝, 𝑒⟩})) ∧ ∀𝑦𝑢𝑒𝑥 ((𝑚 “ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑒)) ⊆ (𝑓 “ {𝑦}) → (𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, 𝑒⟩}) ⊆ (𝑓 “ {𝑦})))))}

Definitiondf-musyn 31644* Define the syntax typecode function for the model universe. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mUSyn = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ (𝑣 ∈ (mUV‘𝑡) ↦ ⟨((mSyn‘𝑡)‘(1st𝑣)), (2nd𝑣)⟩))

Definitiondf-gmdl 31645* Define the set of models of a grammatical formal system. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mGMdl = {𝑡 ∈ (mGFS ∩ mMdl) ∣ (∀𝑐 ∈ (mTC‘𝑡)((mUV‘𝑡) “ {𝑐}) ⊆ ((mUV‘𝑡) “ {((mSyn‘𝑡)‘𝑐)}) ∧ ∀𝑣 ∈ (mUV‘𝑐)∀𝑤 ∈ (mUV‘𝑐)(𝑣(mFresh‘𝑡)𝑤𝑣(mFresh‘𝑡)((mUSyn‘𝑡)‘𝑤)) ∧ ∀𝑚 ∈ (mVL‘𝑡)∀𝑒 ∈ (mEx‘𝑡)((mEval‘𝑡) “ {⟨𝑚, 𝑒⟩}) = (((mEval‘𝑡) “ {⟨𝑚, ((mESyn‘𝑡)‘𝑒)⟩}) ∩ ((mUV‘𝑡) “ {(1st𝑒)})))}

Definitiondf-mitp 31646* Define the interpretation function for a model. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mItp = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ (𝑎 ∈ (mSA‘𝑡) ↦ (𝑔X𝑖 ∈ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑎)((mUV‘𝑡) “ {((mType‘𝑡)‘𝑖)}) ↦ (℩𝑥𝑚 ∈ (mVL‘𝑡)(𝑔 = (𝑚 ↾ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑎)) ∧ 𝑥 = (𝑚(mEval‘𝑡)𝑎))))))

Definitiondf-mfitp 31647* Define a function that produces the evaluation function, given the interpretation function for a model. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2016.)
mFromItp = (𝑡 ∈ V ↦ (𝑓X𝑎 ∈ (mSA‘𝑡)(((mUV‘𝑡) “ {((1st𝑡)‘𝑎)}) ↑𝑚 X𝑖 ∈ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑎)((mUV‘𝑡) “ {((mType‘𝑡)‘𝑖)})) ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ((mUV‘𝑡) ↑pm ((mVL‘𝑡) × (mEx‘𝑡)))∀𝑚 ∈ (mVL‘𝑡)(∀𝑣 ∈ (mVR‘𝑡)⟨𝑚, ((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑣)⟩𝑛(𝑚𝑣) ∧ ∀𝑒𝑎𝑔(𝑒(mST‘𝑡)⟨𝑎, 𝑔⟩ → ⟨𝑚, 𝑒𝑛(𝑓‘(𝑖 ∈ ((mVars‘𝑡)‘𝑎) ↦ (𝑚𝑛(𝑔‘((mVH‘𝑡)‘𝑖)))))) ∧ ∀𝑒 ∈ (mEx‘𝑡)(𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, 𝑒⟩}) = ((𝑛 “ {⟨𝑚, ((mESyn‘𝑡)‘𝑒)⟩}) ∩ ((mUV‘𝑡) “ {(1st𝑒)}))))))

20.5.15  Splitting fields

Syntaxcitr 31648 Integral subring of a ring.
class IntgRing

Syntaxccpms 31649 Completion of a metric space.
class cplMetSp

Syntaxchlb 31650 Embeddings for a direct limit.
class HomLimB

Syntaxchlim 31651 Direct limit structure.
class HomLim

Syntaxcpfl 31652 Polynomial extension field.
class polyFld

Syntaxcsf1 31653 Splitting field for a single polynomial (auxiliary).
class splitFld1

Syntaxcsf 31654 Splitting field for a finite set of polynomials.
class splitFld

Syntaxcpsl 31655 Splitting field for a sequence of polynomials.
class polySplitLim

Definitiondf-irng 31656* Define the subring of elements of 𝑟 integral over 𝑠 in a ring. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
IntgRing = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑠 ∈ V ↦ 𝑓 ∈ (Monic1p‘(𝑟s 𝑠))(𝑓 “ {(0g𝑟)}))

Definitiondf-cplmet 31657* A function which completes the given metric space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
cplMetSp = (𝑤 ∈ V ↦ ((𝑤s ℕ) ↾s (Cau‘(dist‘𝑤))) / 𝑟(Base‘𝑟) / 𝑣{⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ 𝑣 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℤ (𝑓 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶((𝑔𝑗)(ball‘(dist‘𝑤))𝑥))} / 𝑒((𝑟 /s 𝑒) sSet {⟨(dist‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩, 𝑧⟩ ∣ ∃𝑝𝑣𝑞𝑣 ((𝑥 = [𝑝]𝑒𝑦 = [𝑞]𝑒) ∧ (𝑝𝑓 (dist‘𝑟)𝑞) ⇝ 𝑧)}⟩}))

Definitiondf-homlimb 31658* The input to this function is a sequence (on ) of homomorphisms 𝐹(𝑛):𝑅(𝑛)⟶𝑅(𝑛 + 1). The resulting structure is the direct limit of the direct system so defined. This function returns the pair 𝑆, 𝐺 where 𝑆 is the terminal object and 𝐺 is a sequence of functions such that 𝐺(𝑛):𝑅(𝑛)⟶𝑆 and 𝐺(𝑛) = 𝐹(𝑛) ∘ 𝐺(𝑛 + 1). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
HomLimB = (𝑓 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ({𝑛} × dom (𝑓𝑛)) / 𝑣 {𝑠 ∣ (𝑠 Er 𝑣 ∧ (𝑥𝑣 ↦ ⟨((1st𝑥) + 1), ((𝑓‘(1st𝑥))‘(2nd𝑥))⟩) ⊆ 𝑠)} / 𝑒⟨(𝑣 / 𝑒), (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ dom (𝑓𝑛) ↦ [⟨𝑛, 𝑥⟩]𝑒))⟩)

Definitiondf-homlim 31659* The input to this function is a sequence (on ) of structures 𝑅(𝑛) and homomorphisms 𝐹(𝑛):𝑅(𝑛)⟶𝑅(𝑛 + 1). The resulting structure is the direct limit of the direct system so defined, and maintains any structures that were present in the original objects. TODO: generalize to directed sets? (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
HomLim = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ ( HomLimB ‘𝑓) / 𝑒(1st𝑒) / 𝑣(2nd𝑒) / 𝑔({⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑣⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ran (𝑥 ∈ dom (𝑔𝑛), 𝑦 ∈ dom (𝑔𝑛) ↦ ⟨⟨((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑥), ((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑦)⟩, ((𝑔𝑛)‘(𝑥(+g‘(𝑟𝑛))𝑦))⟩)⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ran (𝑥 ∈ dom (𝑔𝑛), 𝑦 ∈ dom (𝑔𝑛) ↦ ⟨⟨((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑥), ((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑦)⟩, ((𝑔𝑛)‘(𝑥(.r‘(𝑟𝑛))𝑦))⟩)⟩} ∪ {⟨(TopOpen‘ndx), {𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝑣 ∣ ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑔𝑛) “ 𝑠) ∈ (TopOpen‘(𝑟𝑛))}⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ran (𝑥 ∈ dom ((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑛), 𝑦 ∈ dom ((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑛) ↦ ⟨⟨((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑥), ((𝑔𝑛)‘𝑦)⟩, (𝑥(dist‘(𝑟𝑛))𝑦)⟩)⟩, ⟨(le‘ndx), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑔𝑛) ∘ ((le‘(𝑟𝑛)) ∘ (𝑔𝑛)))⟩}))

Definitiondf-plfl 31660* Define the field extension that augments a field with the root of the given irreducible polynomial, and extends the norm if one exists and the extension is unique. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
polyFld = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑝 ∈ V ↦ (Poly1𝑟) / 𝑠((RSpan‘𝑠)‘{𝑝}) / 𝑖(𝑧 ∈ (Base‘𝑟) ↦ [(𝑧( ·𝑠𝑠)(1r𝑠))](𝑠 ~QG 𝑖)) / 𝑓(𝑠 /s (𝑠 ~QG 𝑖)) / 𝑡((𝑡 toNrmGrp (𝑛 ∈ (AbsVal‘𝑡)(𝑛𝑓) = (norm‘𝑟))) sSet ⟨(le‘ndx), (𝑧 ∈ (Base‘𝑡) ↦ (𝑞𝑧 (𝑟 deg1 𝑞) < (𝑟 deg1 𝑝))) / 𝑔(𝑔 ∘ ((le‘𝑠) ∘ 𝑔))⟩), 𝑓⟩)

Definitiondf-sfl1 31661* Temporary construction for the splitting field of a polynomial. The inputs are a field 𝑟 and a polynomial 𝑝 that we want to split, along with a tuple 𝑗 in the same format as the output. The output is a tuple 𝑆, 𝐹 where 𝑆 is the splitting field and 𝐹 is an injective homomorphism from the original field 𝑟.

The function works by repeatedly finding the smallest monic irreducible factor, and extending the field by that factor using the polyFld construction. We keep track of a total order in each of the splitting fields so that we can pick an element definably without needing global choice. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)

splitFld1 = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑗 ∈ V ↦ (𝑝 ∈ (Poly1𝑟) ↦ (rec((𝑠 ∈ V, 𝑓 ∈ V ↦ ( mPoly ‘𝑠) / 𝑚{𝑔 ∈ ((Monic1p𝑠) ∩ (Irred‘𝑚)) ∣ (𝑔(∥r𝑚)(𝑝𝑓) ∧ 1 < (𝑠 deg1 𝑔))} / 𝑏if(((𝑝𝑓) = (0g𝑚) ∨ 𝑏 = ∅), ⟨𝑠, 𝑓⟩, (glb‘𝑏) / (𝑠 polyFld ) / 𝑡⟨(1st𝑡), (𝑓 ∘ (2nd𝑡))⟩)), 𝑗)‘(card‘(1...(𝑟 deg1 𝑝))))))

Definitiondf-sfl 31662* Define the splitting field of a finite collection of polynomials, given a total ordered base field. The output is a tuple 𝑆, 𝐹 where 𝑆 is the totally ordered splitting field and 𝐹 is an injective homomorphism from the original field 𝑟. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
splitFld = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑝 ∈ V ↦ (℩𝑥𝑓(𝑓 Isom < , (lt‘𝑟)((1...(#‘𝑝)), 𝑝) ∧ 𝑥 = (seq0((𝑒 ∈ V, 𝑔 ∈ V ↦ ((𝑟 splitFld1 𝑒)‘𝑔)), (𝑓 ∪ {⟨0, ⟨𝑟, ( I ↾ (Base‘𝑟))⟩⟩}))‘(#‘𝑝)))))

Definitiondf-psl 31663* Define the direct limit of an increasing sequence of fields produced by pasting together the splitting fields for each sequence of polynomials. That is, given a ring 𝑟, a strict order on 𝑟, and a sequence 𝑝:ℕ⟶(𝒫 𝑟 ∩ Fin) of finite sets of polynomials to split, we construct the direct limit system of field extensions by splitting one set at a time and passing the resulting construction to HomLim. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
polySplitLim = (𝑟 ∈ V, 𝑝 ∈ ((𝒫 (Base‘𝑟) ∩ Fin) ↑𝑚 ℕ) ↦ (1st ∘ seq0((𝑔 ∈ V, 𝑞 ∈ V ↦ (1st𝑔) / 𝑒(1st𝑒) / 𝑠(𝑠 splitFld ran (𝑥𝑞 ↦ (𝑥 ∘ (2nd𝑔)))) / 𝑓𝑓, ((2nd𝑔) ∘ (2nd𝑓))⟩), (𝑝 ∪ {⟨0, ⟨⟨𝑟, ∅⟩, ( I ↾ (Base‘𝑟))⟩⟩}))) / 𝑓((1st ∘ (𝑓 shift 1)) HomLim (2nd𝑓)))

20.5.16  p-adic number fields

Syntaxczr 31664 Integral elements of a ring.
class ZRing

Syntaxcgf 31665 Galois finite field.
class GF

Syntaxcgfo 31666 Galois limit field.
class GF

Syntaxceqp 31667 Equivalence relation for df-qp 31679.
class ~Qp

Syntaxcrqp 31668 Equivalence relation representatives for df-qp 31679.
class /Qp

Syntaxcqp 31669 The set of 𝑝-adic rational numbers.
class Qp

SyntaxcqpOLD 31670 The set of 𝑝-adic rational numbers. (New usage is discouraged.)
class QpOLD

Syntaxczp 31671 The set of 𝑝-adic integers. (Not to be confused with czn 19899.)
class Zp

Syntaxcqpa 31672 Algebraic completion of the 𝑝-adic rational numbers.
class _Qp

Syntaxccp 31673 Metric completion of _Qp.
class Cp

Definitiondf-zrng 31674 Define the subring of integral elements in a ring. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
ZRing = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ (𝑟 IntgRing ran (ℤRHom‘𝑟)))

Definitiondf-gf 31675* Define the Galois finite field of order 𝑝𝑛. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
GF = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑝) / 𝑟(1st ‘(𝑟 splitFld {(Poly1𝑟) / 𝑠(var1𝑟) / 𝑥(((𝑝𝑛)(.g‘(mulGrp‘𝑠))𝑥)(-g𝑠)𝑥)})))

Definitiondf-gfoo 31676* Define the Galois field of order 𝑝↑+∞, as a direct limit of the Galois finite fields. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
GF = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑝) / 𝑟(𝑟 polySplitLim (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ {(Poly1𝑟) / 𝑠(var1𝑟) / 𝑥(((𝑝𝑛)(.g‘(mulGrp‘𝑠))𝑥)(-g𝑠)𝑥)})))

Definitiondf-eqp 31677* Define an equivalence relation on -indexed sequences of integers such that two sequences are equivalent iff the difference is equivalent to zero, and a sequence is equivalent to zero iff the sum Σ𝑘𝑛𝑓(𝑘)(𝑝𝑘) is a multiple of 𝑝↑(𝑛 + 1) for every 𝑛. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
~Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ {⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ (ℤ ↑𝑚 ℤ) ∧ ∀𝑛 ∈ ℤ Σ𝑘 ∈ (ℤ‘-𝑛)(((𝑓‘-𝑘) − (𝑔‘-𝑘)) / (𝑝↑(𝑘 + (𝑛 + 1)))) ∈ ℤ)})

Definitiondf-rqp 31678* There is a unique element of (ℤ ↑𝑚 (0...(𝑝 − 1))) ~Qp -equivalent to any element of (ℤ ↑𝑚 ℤ), if the sequences are zero for sufficiently large negative values; this function selects that element. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
/Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (~Qp ∩ {𝑓 ∈ (ℤ ↑𝑚 ℤ) ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ ran ℤ(𝑓 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ 𝑥} / 𝑦(𝑦 × (𝑦 ∩ (ℤ ↑𝑚 (0...(𝑝 − 1)))))))

Definitiondf-qp 31679* Define the 𝑝-adic completion of the rational numbers, as a normed field structure with a total order (that is not compatible with the operations). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.) (Revised by AV, 10-Oct-2021.)
Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ { ∈ (ℤ ↑𝑚 (0...(𝑝 − 1))) ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ ran ℤ( “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ 𝑥} / 𝑏(({⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑏⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑓𝑓 + 𝑔)))⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑛 ∈ ℤ ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓𝑘) · (𝑔‘(𝑛𝑘))))))⟩} ∪ {⟨(le‘ndx), {⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ 𝑏 ∧ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)) < Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑔‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)))}⟩}) toNrmGrp (𝑓𝑏 ↦ if(𝑓 = (ℤ × {0}), 0, (𝑝↑-inf((𝑓 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})), ℝ, < ))))))

Definitiondf-qpOLD 31680* Define the 𝑝-adic completion of the rational numbers, as a normed field structure with a total order (that is not compatible with the operations). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.) Obsolete version of df-qp 31679 as of 10-Oct-2021. (New usage is discouraged.)
QpOLD = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ { ∈ (ℤ ↑𝑚 (0...(𝑝 − 1))) ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ ran ℤ( “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ 𝑥} / 𝑏(({⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑏⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑓𝑓 + 𝑔)))⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑛 ∈ ℤ ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓𝑘) · (𝑔‘(𝑛𝑘))))))⟩} ∪ {⟨(le‘ndx), {⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ 𝑏 ∧ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)) < Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑔‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)))}⟩}) toNrmGrp (𝑓𝑏 ↦ if(𝑓 = (ℤ × {0}), 0, (𝑝↑-sup((𝑓 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})), ℝ, < ))))))

Definitiondf-zp 31681 Define the 𝑝-adic integers, as a subset of the 𝑝-adic rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
Zp = (ZRing ∘ Qp)

Definitiondf-qpa 31682* Define the completion of the 𝑝-adic rationals. Here we simply define it as the splitting field of a dense sequence of polynomials (using as the 𝑛-th set the collection of polynomials with degree less than 𝑛 and with coefficients < (𝑝𝑛)). Krasner's lemma will then show that all monic polynomials have splitting fields isomorphic to a sufficiently close Eisenstein polynomial from the list, and unramified extensions are generated by the polynomial 𝑥↑(𝑝𝑛) − 𝑥, which is in the list. Thus, every finite extension of Qp is a subfield of this field extension, so it is algebraically closed. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
_Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (Qp‘𝑝) / 𝑟(𝑟 polySplitLim (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑓 ∈ (Poly1𝑟) ∣ ((𝑟 deg1 𝑓) ≤ 𝑛 ∧ ∀𝑑 ∈ ran (coe1𝑓)(𝑑 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ (0...𝑛))})))

Definitiondf-cp 31683 Define the metric completion of the algebraic completion of the 𝑝 -adic rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
Cp = ( cplMetSp ∘ _Qp)

20.6  Mathbox for Filip Cernatescu

I hope someone will enjoy solving (proving) the simple equations, inequalities, and calculations from this mathbox. I have proved these problems (theorems) using the Milpgame proof assistant. (It can be downloaded from http://us.metamath.org/other/milpgame/milpgame.html.)

Theoremproblem1 31684 Practice problem 1. Clues: 5p4e9 11205 3p2e5 11198 eqtri 2673 oveq1i 6700. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((3 + 2) + 4) = 9

Theoremproblem2 31685 Practice problem 2. Clues: oveq12i 6702 adddiri 10089 add4i 10298 mulcli 10083 recni 10090 2re 11128 3eqtri 2677 10re 11555 5re 11137 1re 10077 4re 11135 eqcomi 2660 5p4e9 11205 oveq1i 6700 df-3 11118. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Revised by AV, 9-Sep-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((2 · 10) + 5) + ((1 · 10) + 4)) = ((3 · 10) + 9)

Theoremproblem2OLD 31686 Practice problem 2. Clues: oveq12i 6702 adddiri 10089 add4i 10298 mulcli 10083 recni 10090 2re 11128 3eqtri 2677 10re 11555 5re 11137 1re 10077 4re 11135 eqcomi 2660 5p4e9 11205 oveq1i 6700 df-3 11118. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) Obsolete version of problem2 31685 as of 9-Sep-2021. (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(((2 · 10) + 5) + ((1 · 10) + 4)) = ((3 · 10) + 9)

Theoremproblem3 31687 Practice problem 3. Clues: eqcomi 2660 eqtri 2673 subaddrii 10408 recni 10090 4re 11135 3re 11132 1re 10077 df-4 11119 addcomi 10265. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   (𝐴 + 3) = 4       𝐴 = 1

Theoremproblem4 31688 Practice problem 4. Clues: pm3.2i 470 eqcomi 2660 eqtri 2673 subaddrii 10408 recni 10090 7re 11141 6re 11139 ax-1cn 10032 df-7 11122 ax-mp 5 oveq1i 6700 3cn 11133 2cn 11129 df-3 11118 mulid2i 10081 subdiri 10518 mp3an 1464 mulcli 10083 subadd23 10331 oveq2i 6701 oveq12i 6702 3t2e6 11217 mulcomi 10084 subcli 10395 biimpri 218 subadd2i 10407. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   (𝐴 + 𝐵) = 3    &   ((3 · 𝐴) + (2 · 𝐵)) = 7       (𝐴 = 1 ∧ 𝐵 = 2)

Theoremproblem5 31689 Practice problem 5. Clues: 3brtr3i 4714 mpbi 220 breqtri 4710 ltaddsubi 10627 remulcli 10092 2re 11128 3re 11132 9re 11145 eqcomi 2660 mvlladdi 10337 3cn 6cn 11140 eqtr3i 2675 6p3e9 11208 addcomi 10265 ltdiv1ii 10991 6re 11139 nngt0i 11092 2nn 11223 divcan3i 10809 recni 10090 2cn 11129 2ne0 11151 mpbir 221 eqtri 2673 mulcomi 10084 3t2e6 11217 divmuli 10817. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   ((2 · 𝐴) + 3) < 9       𝐴 < 3

Theoremquad3 31690 Variant of quadratic equation with discriminant expanded. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 19-Oct-2019.)
𝑋 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐴 ≠ 0    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ    &   ((𝐴 · (𝑋↑2)) + ((𝐵 · 𝑋) + 𝐶)) = 0       (𝑋 = ((-𝐵 + (√‘((𝐵↑2) − (4 · (𝐴 · 𝐶))))) / (2 · 𝐴)) ∨ 𝑋 = ((-𝐵 − (√‘((𝐵↑2) − (4 · (𝐴 · 𝐶))))) / (2 · 𝐴)))

20.7  Mathbox for Paul Chapman

20.7.1  Real and complex numbers (cont.)

Theoremclimuzcnv 31691* Utility lemma to convert between 𝑚𝑘 and 𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚) in limit theorems. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.)
(𝑚 ∈ ℕ → ((𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚) → 𝜑) ↔ (𝑘 ∈ ℕ → (𝑚𝑘𝜑))))

Theoremsinccvglem 31692* ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥) ⇝ 1 as (real) 𝑥 ⇝ 0. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶(ℝ ∖ {0}))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ 0)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (ℝ ∖ {0}) ↦ ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥))    &   𝐻 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (1 − ((𝑥↑2) / 3)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (abs‘(𝐹𝑘)) < 1)       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝐹) ⇝ 1)

Theoremsinccvg 31693* ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥) ⇝ 1 as (real) 𝑥 ⇝ 0. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
((𝐹:ℕ⟶(ℝ ∖ {0}) ∧ 𝐹 ⇝ 0) → ((𝑥 ∈ (ℝ ∖ {0}) ↦ ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥)) ∘ 𝐹) ⇝ 1)

Theoremcircum 31694* The circumference of a circle of radius 𝑅, defined as the limit as 𝑛 ⇝ +∞ of the perimeter of an inscribed n-sided isogons, is ((2 · π) · 𝑅). (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
𝐴 = ((2 · π) / 𝑛)    &   𝑃 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((2 · 𝑛) · (𝑅 · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))    &   𝑅 ∈ ℝ       𝑃 ⇝ ((2 · π) · 𝑅)

20.7.2  Miscellaneous theorems

Theoremelfzm12 31695 Membership in a curtailed finite sequence of integers. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 17-Nov-2012.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑀 ∈ (1...(𝑁 − 1)) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁)))

Theoremnn0seqcvg 31696* A strictly-decreasing nonnegative integer sequence with initial term 𝑁 reaches zero by the 𝑁 th term. Inference version. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 31-Mar-2011.)
𝐹:ℕ0⟶ℕ0    &   𝑁 = (𝐹‘0)    &   (𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 → ((𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≠ 0 → (𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)) < (𝐹𝑘)))       (𝐹𝑁) = 0

Theoremlediv2aALT 31697 Division of both sides of 'less than or equal to' by a nonnegative number. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 < 𝐴) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 < 𝐵) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐶)) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝐶 / 𝐵) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝐴)))

Theoremabs2sqlei 31698 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       ((abs‘𝐴) ≤ (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) ≤ ((abs‘𝐵)↑2))

Theoremabs2sqlti 31699 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       ((abs‘𝐴) < (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) < ((abs‘𝐵)↑2))

Theoremabs2sqle 31700 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((abs‘𝐴) ≤ (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) ≤ ((abs‘𝐵)↑2)))

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