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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 31301-31400   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremerdszelem3 31301* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))       (𝐴 ∈ (1...𝑁) → (𝐾𝐴) = sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝐴) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝐴𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))

Theoremerdszelem4 31302* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑂 Or ℝ       ((𝜑𝐴 ∈ (1...𝑁)) → {𝐴} ∈ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝐴) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝐴𝑦)})

Theoremerdszelem5 31303* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑂 Or ℝ       ((𝜑𝐴 ∈ (1...𝑁)) → (𝐾𝐴) ∈ (# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝐴) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝐴𝑦)}))

Theoremerdszelem6 31304* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑂 Or ℝ       (𝜑𝐾:(1...𝑁)⟶ℕ)

Theoremerdszelem7 31305* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑂 Or ℝ    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ (𝐾𝐴) ∈ (1...(𝑅 − 1)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑁)(𝑅 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠))))

Theoremerdszelem8 31306* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , 𝑂 (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑂 Or ℝ    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)       (𝜑 → ((𝐾𝐴) = (𝐾𝐵) → ¬ (𝐹𝐴)𝑂(𝐹𝐵)))

Theoremerdszelem9 31307* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐼 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝐽 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑇 = (𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝐼𝑛), (𝐽𝑛)⟩)       (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)–1-1→(ℕ × ℕ))

Theoremerdszelem10 31308* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐼 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝐽 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑇 = (𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝐼𝑛), (𝐽𝑛)⟩)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1)) < 𝑁)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚 ∈ (1...𝑁)(¬ (𝐼𝑚) ∈ (1...(𝑅 − 1)) ∨ ¬ (𝐽𝑚) ∈ (1...(𝑆 − 1))))

Theoremerdszelem11 31309* Lemma for erdsze 31310. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   𝐼 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝐽 = (𝑥 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ sup((# “ {𝑦 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑥) ∣ ((𝐹𝑦) Isom < , < (𝑦, (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ 𝑥𝑦)}), ℝ, < ))    &   𝑇 = (𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝐼𝑛), (𝐽𝑛)⟩)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1)) < 𝑁)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑁)((𝑅 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠))) ∨ (𝑆 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠)))))

Theoremerdsze 31310* The Erdős-Szekeres theorem. For any injective sequence 𝐹 on the reals of length at least (𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1) + 1, there is either a subsequence of length at least 𝑅 on which 𝐹 is increasing (i.e. a < , < order isomorphism) or a subsequence of length at least 𝑆 on which 𝐹 is decreasing (i.e. a < , < order isomorphism, recalling that < is the greater-than relation). This is part of Metamath 100 proof #73. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑁)–1-1→ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1)) < 𝑁)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 (1...𝑁)((𝑅 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠))) ∨ (𝑆 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠)))))

Theoremerdsze2lem1 31311* Lemma for erdsze2 31313. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴1-1→ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝑁 = ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 < (#‘𝐴))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...(𝑁 + 1))–1-1𝐴𝑓 Isom < , < ((1...(𝑁 + 1)), ran 𝑓)))

Theoremerdsze2lem2 31312* Lemma for erdsze2 31313. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴1-1→ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝑁 = ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 < (#‘𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...(𝑁 + 1))–1-1𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐺 Isom < , < ((1...(𝑁 + 1)), ran 𝐺))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝐴((𝑅 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠))) ∨ (𝑆 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠)))))

Theoremerdsze2 31313* Generalize the statement of the Erdős-Szekeres theorem erdsze 31310 to "sequences" indexed by an arbitrary subset of , which can be infinite. This is part of Metamath 100 proof #73. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴1-1→ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑅 − 1) · (𝑆 − 1)) < (#‘𝐴))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝐴((𝑅 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠))) ∨ (𝑆 ≤ (#‘𝑠) ∧ (𝐹𝑠) Isom < , < (𝑠, (𝐹𝑠)))))

20.5.5  The Kuratowski closure-complement theorem

Theoremkur14lem1 31314 Lemma for kur14 31324. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Feb-2015.)
𝐴𝑋    &   (𝑋𝐴) ∈ 𝑇    &   (𝐾𝐴) ∈ 𝑇       (𝑁 = 𝐴 → (𝑁𝑋 ∧ {(𝑋𝑁), (𝐾𝑁)} ⊆ 𝑇))

Theoremkur14lem2 31315 Lemma for kur14 31324. Write interior in terms of closure and complement: 𝑖𝐴 = 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴 where 𝑐 is complement and 𝑘 is closure. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋       (𝐼𝐴) = (𝑋 ∖ (𝐾‘(𝑋𝐴)))

Theoremkur14lem3 31316 Lemma for kur14 31324. A closure is a subset of the base set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋       (𝐾𝐴) ⊆ 𝑋

Theoremkur14lem4 31317 Lemma for kur14 31324. Complementation is an involution on the set of subsets of a topology. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋       (𝑋 ∖ (𝑋𝐴)) = 𝐴

Theoremkur14lem5 31318 Lemma for kur14 31324. Closure is an idempotent operation in the set of subsets of a topology. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋       (𝐾‘(𝐾𝐴)) = (𝐾𝐴)

Theoremkur14lem6 31319 Lemma for kur14 31324. If 𝑘 is the complementation operator and 𝑘 is the closure operator, this expresses the identity 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴 = 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴 for any subset 𝐴 of the topological space. This is the key result that lets us cut down long enough sequences of 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘... that arise when applying closure and complement repeatedly to 𝐴, and explains why we end up with a number as large as 14, yet no larger. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋    &   𝐵 = (𝑋 ∖ (𝐾𝐴))       (𝐾‘(𝐼‘(𝐾𝐵))) = (𝐾𝐵)

Theoremkur14lem7 31320 Lemma for kur14 31324: main proof. The set 𝑇 here contains all the distinct combinations of 𝑘 and 𝑐 that can arise, and we prove here that applying 𝑘 or 𝑐 to any element of 𝑇 yields another elemnt of 𝑇. In operator shorthand, we have 𝑇 = {𝐴, 𝑐𝐴, 𝑘𝐴 , 𝑐𝑘𝐴, 𝑘𝑐𝐴, 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴, 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴, 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴, 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴, 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴, 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴, 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴, 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴, 𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝐴}. From the identities 𝑐𝑐𝐴 = 𝐴 and 𝑘𝑘𝐴 = 𝑘𝐴, we can reduce any operator combination containing two adjacent identical operators, which is why the list only contains alternating sequences. The reason the sequences don't keep going after a certain point is due to the identity 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴 = 𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝑐𝑘𝐴, proved in kur14lem6 31319. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋    &   𝐵 = (𝑋 ∖ (𝐾𝐴))    &   𝐶 = (𝐾‘(𝑋𝐴))    &   𝐷 = (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐴))    &   𝑇 = ((({𝐴, (𝑋𝐴), (𝐾𝐴)} ∪ {𝐵, 𝐶, (𝐼𝐴)}) ∪ {(𝐾𝐵), 𝐷, (𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴))}) ∪ ({(𝐼𝐶), (𝐾𝐷), (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐵))} ∪ {(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐶)), (𝐼‘(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴)))}))       (𝑁𝑇 → (𝑁𝑋 ∧ {(𝑋𝑁), (𝐾𝑁)} ⊆ 𝑇))

Theoremkur14lem8 31321 Lemma for kur14 31324. Show that the set 𝑇 contains at most 14 elements. (It could be less if some of the operators take the same value for a given set, but Kuratowski showed that this upper bound of 14 is tight in the sense that there exist topological spaces and subsets of these spaces for which all 14 generated sets are distinct, and indeed the real numbers form such a topological space.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋    &   𝐵 = (𝑋 ∖ (𝐾𝐴))    &   𝐶 = (𝐾‘(𝑋𝐴))    &   𝐷 = (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐴))    &   𝑇 = ((({𝐴, (𝑋𝐴), (𝐾𝐴)} ∪ {𝐵, 𝐶, (𝐼𝐴)}) ∪ {(𝐾𝐵), 𝐷, (𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴))}) ∪ ({(𝐼𝐶), (𝐾𝐷), (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐵))} ∪ {(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐶)), (𝐼‘(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴)))}))       (𝑇 ∈ Fin ∧ (#‘𝑇) ≤ 14)

Theoremkur14lem9 31322* Lemma for kur14 31324. Since the set 𝑇 is closed under closure and complement, it contains the minimal set 𝑆 as a subset, so 𝑆 also has at most 14 elements. (Indeed 𝑆 = 𝑇, and it's not hard to prove this, but we don't need it for this proof.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝐼 = (int‘𝐽)    &   𝐴𝑋    &   𝐵 = (𝑋 ∖ (𝐾𝐴))    &   𝐶 = (𝐾‘(𝑋𝐴))    &   𝐷 = (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐴))    &   𝑇 = ((({𝐴, (𝑋𝐴), (𝐾𝐴)} ∪ {𝐵, 𝐶, (𝐼𝐴)}) ∪ {(𝐾𝐵), 𝐷, (𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴))}) ∪ ({(𝐼𝐶), (𝐾𝐷), (𝐼‘(𝐾𝐵))} ∪ {(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐶)), (𝐼‘(𝐾‘(𝐼𝐴)))}))    &   𝑆 = {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝒫 𝑋 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 {(𝑋𝑦), (𝐾𝑦)} ⊆ 𝑥)}       (𝑆 ∈ Fin ∧ (#‘𝑆) ≤ 14)

Theoremkur14lem10 31323* Lemma for kur14 31324. Discharge the set 𝑇. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 ∈ Top    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝑆 = {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝒫 𝑋 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 {(𝑋𝑦), (𝐾𝑦)} ⊆ 𝑥)}    &   𝐴𝑋       (𝑆 ∈ Fin ∧ (#‘𝑆) ≤ 14)

Theoremkur14 31324* Kuratowski's closure-complement theorem. There are at most 14 sets which can be obtained by the application of the closure and complement operations to a set in a topological space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (cls‘𝐽)    &   𝑆 = {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝒫 𝑋 ∣ (𝐴𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 {(𝑋𝑦), (𝐾𝑦)} ⊆ 𝑥)}       ((𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐴𝑋) → (𝑆 ∈ Fin ∧ (#‘𝑆) ≤ 14))

20.5.6  Retracts and sections

Syntaxcretr 31325 Extend class notation with the retract relation.
class Retr

Definitiondf-retr 31326* Define the set of retractions on two topological spaces. We say that 𝑅 is a retraction from 𝐽 to 𝐾. or 𝑅 ∈ (𝐽 Retr 𝐾) iff there is an 𝑆 such that 𝑅:𝐽𝐾, 𝑆:𝐾𝐽 are continuous functions called the retraction and section respectively, and their composite 𝑅𝑆 is homotopic to the identity map. If a retraction exists, we say 𝐽 is a retract of 𝐾. (This terminology is borrowed from HoTT and appears to be nonstandard, although it has similaries to the concept of retract in the category of topological spaces and to a deformation retract in general topology.) Two topological spaces that are retracts of each other are called homotopy equivalent. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
Retr = (𝑗 ∈ Top, 𝑘 ∈ Top ↦ {𝑟 ∈ (𝑗 Cn 𝑘) ∣ ∃𝑠 ∈ (𝑘 Cn 𝑗)((𝑟𝑠)(𝑗 Htpy 𝑗)( I ↾ 𝑗)) ≠ ∅})

20.5.7  Path-connected and simply connected spaces

Syntaxcpconn 31327 Extend class notation with the class of path-connected topologies.
class PConn

Syntaxcsconn 31328 Extend class notation with the class of simply connected topologies.
class SConn

Definitiondf-pconn 31329* Define the class of path-connected topologies. A topology is path-connected if there is a path (a continuous function from the unit interval) that goes from 𝑥 to 𝑦 for any points 𝑥, 𝑦 in the space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
PConn = {𝑗 ∈ Top ∣ ∀𝑥 𝑗𝑦 𝑗𝑓 ∈ (II Cn 𝑗)((𝑓‘0) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑓‘1) = 𝑦)}

Definitiondf-sconn 31330* Define the class of simply connected topologies. A topology is simply connected if it is path-connected and every loop (continuous path with identical start and endpoint) is contractible to a point (path-homotopic to a constant function). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
SConn = {𝑗 ∈ PConn ∣ ∀𝑓 ∈ (II Cn 𝑗)((𝑓‘0) = (𝑓‘1) → 𝑓( ≃ph𝑗)((0[,]1) × {(𝑓‘0)}))}

Theoremispconn 31331* The property of being a path-connected topological space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       (𝐽 ∈ PConn ↔ (𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ ∀𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋𝑓 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽)((𝑓‘0) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑓‘1) = 𝑦)))

Theorempconncn 31332* The property of being a path-connected topological space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑋) → ∃𝑓 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽)((𝑓‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑓‘1) = 𝐵))

Theorempconntop 31333 A simply connected space is a topology. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐽 ∈ PConn → 𝐽 ∈ Top)

Theoremissconn 31334* The property of being a simply connected topological space. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐽 ∈ SConn ↔ (𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ ∀𝑓 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽)((𝑓‘0) = (𝑓‘1) → 𝑓( ≃ph𝐽)((0[,]1) × {(𝑓‘0)}))))

Theoremsconnpconn 31335 A simply connected space is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐽 ∈ SConn → 𝐽 ∈ PConn)

Theoremsconntop 31336 A simply connected space is a topology. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐽 ∈ SConn → 𝐽 ∈ Top)

Theoremsconnpht 31337 A closed path in a simply connected space is contractible to a point. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
((𝐽 ∈ SConn ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽) ∧ (𝐹‘0) = (𝐹‘1)) → 𝐹( ≃ph𝐽)((0[,]1) × {(𝐹‘0)}))

Theoremcnpconn 31338 An image of a path-connected space is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Mar-2015.)
𝑌 = 𝐾       ((𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝐹:𝑋onto𝑌𝐹 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)) → 𝐾 ∈ PConn)

Theorempconnconn 31339 A path-connected space is connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐽 ∈ PConn → 𝐽 ∈ Conn)

Theoremtxpconn 31340 The topological product of two path-connected spaces is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
((𝑅 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝑆 ∈ PConn) → (𝑅 ×t 𝑆) ∈ PConn)

Theoremptpconn 31341 The topological product of a collection of path-connected spaces is path-connected. The proof uses the axiom of choice. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Feb-2015.)
((𝐴𝑉𝐹:𝐴⟶PConn) → (∏t𝐹) ∈ PConn)

Theoremindispconn 31342 The indiscrete topology (or trivial topology) on any set is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jul-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Aug-2015.)
{∅, 𝐴} ∈ PConn

Theoremconnpconn 31343 A connected and locally path-connected space is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jul-2015.)
((𝐽 ∈ Conn ∧ 𝐽 ∈ 𝑛-Locally PConn) → 𝐽 ∈ PConn)

Theoremqtoppconn 31344 A quotient of a path-connected space is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Mar-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝐹 Fn 𝑋) → (𝐽 qTop 𝐹) ∈ PConn)

Theorempconnpi1 31345 All fundamental groups in a path-connected space are isomorphic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽    &   𝑃 = (𝐽 π1 𝐴)    &   𝑄 = (𝐽 π1 𝐵)    &   𝑆 = (Base‘𝑃)    &   𝑇 = (Base‘𝑄)       ((𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑋) → 𝑃𝑔 𝑄)

Theoremsconnpht2 31346 Any two paths in a simply connected space with the same start and end point are path-homotopic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐽 ∈ SConn)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹‘0) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹‘1) = (𝐺‘1))       (𝜑𝐹( ≃ph𝐽)𝐺)

Theoremsconnpi1 31347 A path-connected topological space is simply connected iff its fundamental group is trivial. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐽 ∈ PConn ∧ 𝑌𝑋) → (𝐽 ∈ SConn ↔ (Base‘(𝐽 π1 𝑌)) ≈ 1𝑜))

Theoremtxsconnlem 31348 Lemma for txsconn 31349. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ Top)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ Top)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (II Cn (𝑅 ×t 𝑆)))    &   𝐴 = ((1st ↾ ( 𝑅 × 𝑆)) ∘ 𝐹)    &   𝐵 = ((2nd ↾ ( 𝑅 × 𝑆)) ∘ 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝐴(PHtpy‘𝑅)((0[,]1) × {(𝐴‘0)})))    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ (𝐵(PHtpy‘𝑆)((0[,]1) × {(𝐵‘0)})))       (𝜑𝐹( ≃ph‘(𝑅 ×t 𝑆))((0[,]1) × {(𝐹‘0)}))

Theoremtxsconn 31349 The topological product of two simply connected spaces is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
((𝑅 ∈ SConn ∧ 𝑆 ∈ SConn) → (𝑅 ×t 𝑆) ∈ SConn)

Theoremcvxpconn 31350* A convex subset of the complex numbers is path-connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆𝑡 ∈ (0[,]1))) → ((𝑡 · 𝑥) + ((1 − 𝑡) · 𝑦)) ∈ 𝑆)    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t 𝑆)       (𝜑𝐾 ∈ PConn)

Theoremcvxsconn 31351* A convex subset of the complex numbers is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆𝑡 ∈ (0[,]1))) → ((𝑡 · 𝑥) + ((1 − 𝑡) · 𝑦)) ∈ 𝑆)    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t 𝑆)       (𝜑𝐾 ∈ SConn)

Theoremblsconn 31352 An open ball in the complex numbers is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Feb-2015.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝑆 = (𝑃(ball‘(abs ∘ − ))𝑅)    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t 𝑆)       ((𝑃 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑅 ∈ ℝ*) → 𝐾 ∈ SConn)

Theoremcnllysconn 31353 The topology of the complex numbers is locally simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Mar-2015.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)       𝐽 ∈ Locally SConn

Theoremresconn 31354 A subset of is simply connected iff it is connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
𝐽 = ((topGen‘ran (,)) ↾t 𝐴)       (𝐴 ⊆ ℝ → (𝐽 ∈ SConn ↔ 𝐽 ∈ Conn))

Theoremioosconn 31355 An open interval is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
((topGen‘ran (,)) ↾t (𝐴(,)𝐵)) ∈ SConn

Theoremiccsconn 31356 A closed interval is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → ((topGen‘ran (,)) ↾t (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ SConn)

Theoremretopsconn 31357 The real numbers are simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
(topGen‘ran (,)) ∈ SConn

Theoremiccllysconn 31358 A closed interval is locally simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → ((topGen‘ran (,)) ↾t (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ Locally SConn)

Theoremrellysconn 31359 The real numbers are locally simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
(topGen‘ran (,)) ∈ Locally SConn

Theoremiisconn 31360 The unit interval is simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Mar-2015.)
II ∈ SConn

Theoremiillysconn 31361 The unit interval is locally simply connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
II ∈ Locally SConn

Theoremiinllyconn 31362 The unit interval is locally connected. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jul-2015.)
II ∈ 𝑛-Locally Conn

20.5.8  Covering maps

Syntaxccvm 31363 Extend class notation with the class of covering maps.
class CovMap

Definitiondf-cvm 31364* Define the class of covering maps on two topological spaces. A function 𝑓:𝑐𝑗 is a covering map if it is continuous and for every point 𝑥 in the target space there is a neighborhood 𝑘 of 𝑥 and a decomposition 𝑠 of the preimage of 𝑘 as a disjoint union such that 𝑓 is a homeomorphism of each set 𝑢𝑠 onto 𝑘. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
CovMap = (𝑐 ∈ Top, 𝑗 ∈ Top ↦ {𝑓 ∈ (𝑐 Cn 𝑗) ∣ ∀𝑥 𝑗𝑘𝑗 (𝑥𝑘 ∧ ∃𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝑐 ∖ {∅})( 𝑠 = (𝑓𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝑓𝑢) ∈ ((𝑐t 𝑢)Homeo(𝑗t 𝑘)))))})

Theoremfncvm 31365 Lemma for covering maps. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
CovMap Fn (Top × Top)

Theoremcvmscbv 31366* Change bound variables in the set of even coverings. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       𝑆 = (𝑎𝐽 ↦ {𝑏 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑏 = (𝐹𝑎) ∧ ∀𝑐𝑏 (∀𝑑 ∈ (𝑏 ∖ {𝑐})(𝑐𝑑) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑐) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑐)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑎))))})

Theoremiscvm 31367* The property of being a covering map. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝑋 = 𝐽       (𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ↔ ((𝐶 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐽 ∈ Top ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 Cn 𝐽)) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑋𝑘𝐽 (𝑥𝑘 ∧ (𝑆𝑘) ≠ ∅)))

Theoremcvmtop1 31368 Reverse closure for a covering map. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) → 𝐶 ∈ Top)

Theoremcvmtop2 31369 Reverse closure for a covering map. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
(𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) → 𝐽 ∈ Top)

Theoremcvmcn 31370 A covering map is a continuous function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
(𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) → 𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 Cn 𝐽))

Theoremcvmcov 31371* Property of a covering map. In order to make the covering property more manageable, we define here the set 𝑆(𝑘) of all even coverings of an open set 𝑘 in the range. Then the covering property states that every point has a neighborhood which has an even covering. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝑋 = 𝐽       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝑃𝑋) → ∃𝑥𝐽 (𝑃𝑥 ∧ (𝑆𝑥) ≠ ∅))

Theoremcvmsrcl 31372* Reverse closure for an even covering. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) → 𝑈𝐽)

Theoremcvmsi 31373* One direction of cvmsval 31374. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) → (𝑈𝐽 ∧ (𝑇𝐶𝑇 ≠ ∅) ∧ ( 𝑇 = (𝐹𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑇 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑇 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑈))))))

Theoremcvmsval 31374* Elementhood in the set 𝑆 of all even coverings of an open set in 𝐽. 𝑆 is an even covering of 𝑈 if it is a nonempty collection of disjoint open sets in 𝐶 whose union is the preimage of 𝑈, such that each set 𝑢𝑆 is homeomorphic under 𝐹 to 𝑈. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝐶𝑉 → (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ↔ (𝑈𝐽 ∧ (𝑇𝐶𝑇 ≠ ∅) ∧ ( 𝑇 = (𝐹𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑇 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑇 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑈)))))))

Theoremcvmsss 31375* An even covering is a subset of the topology of the domain (i.e. a collection of open sets). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) → 𝑇𝐶)

Theoremcvmsn0 31376* An even covering is nonempty. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) → 𝑇 ≠ ∅)

Theoremcvmsuni 31377* An even covering of 𝑈 has union equal to the preimage of 𝑈 by 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) → 𝑇 = (𝐹𝑈))

Theoremcvmsdisj 31378* An even covering of 𝑈 is a disjoint union. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝑇𝐵𝑇) → (𝐴 = 𝐵 ∨ (𝐴𝐵) = ∅))

Theoremcvmshmeo 31379* Every element of an even covering of 𝑈 is homeomorphic to 𝑈 via 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝑇) → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝐴)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑈)))

Theoremcvmsf1o 31380* 𝐹, localized to an element of an even covering of 𝑈, is a bijection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝑇) → (𝐹𝐴):𝐴1-1-onto𝑈)

Theoremcvmscld 31381* The sets of an even covering are clopen in the subspace topology on 𝑇. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝑇) → 𝐴 ∈ (Clsd‘(𝐶t (𝐹𝑈))))

Theoremcvmsss2 31382* An open subset of an evenly covered set is evenly covered. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jul-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝑉𝐽𝑉𝑈) → ((𝑆𝑈) ≠ ∅ → (𝑆𝑉) ≠ ∅))

Theoremcvmcov2 31383* The covering map property can be restricted to an open subset. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jul-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝑈𝐽𝑃𝑈) → ∃𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑈(𝑃𝑥 ∧ (𝑆𝑥) ≠ ∅))

Theoremcvmseu 31384* Every element in 𝑇 is a member of a unique element of 𝑇. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝐵 ∧ (𝐹𝐴) ∈ 𝑈)) → ∃!𝑥𝑇 𝐴𝑥)

Theoremcvmsiota 31385* Identify the unique element of 𝑇 containing 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑊 = (𝑥𝑇 𝐴𝑥)       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ (𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈) ∧ 𝐴𝐵 ∧ (𝐹𝐴) ∈ 𝑈)) → (𝑊𝑇𝐴𝑊))

Theoremcvmopnlem 31386* Lemma for cvmopn 31388. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝐴𝐶) → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ 𝐽)

Theoremcvmfolem 31387* Lemma for cvmfo 31408. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽       (𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) → 𝐹:𝐵onto𝑋)

Theoremcvmopn 31388 A covering map is an open map. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2015.)
((𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽) ∧ 𝐴𝐶) → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ 𝐽)

Theoremcvmliftmolem1 31389* Lemma for cvmliftmo 31392. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑌 = 𝐾    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ Conn)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ 𝑛-Locally Conn)    &   (𝜑𝑂𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑀) = (𝐹𝑁))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀𝑂) = (𝑁𝑂))    &   𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑇 ∈ (𝑆𝑈))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑊𝑇)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐼 ⊆ (𝑀𝑊))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝐾t 𝐼) ∈ Conn)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑋𝐼)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑄𝐼)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑅𝐼)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝐹‘(𝑀𝑋)) ∈ 𝑈)       ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝑄 ∈ dom (𝑀𝑁) → 𝑅 ∈ dom (𝑀𝑁)))

Theoremcvmliftmolem2 31390* Lemma for cvmliftmo 31392. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑌 = 𝐾    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ Conn)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ 𝑛-Locally Conn)    &   (𝜑𝑂𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑀) = (𝐹𝑁))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀𝑂) = (𝑁𝑂))    &   𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})       (𝜑𝑀 = 𝑁)

Theoremcvmliftmoi 31391 A lift of a continuous function from a connected and locally connected space over a covering map is unique when it exists. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑌 = 𝐾    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ Conn)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ 𝑛-Locally Conn)    &   (𝜑𝑂𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑀) = (𝐹𝑁))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀𝑂) = (𝑁𝑂))       (𝜑𝑀 = 𝑁)

Theoremcvmliftmo 31392* A lift of a continuous function from a connected and locally connected space over a covering map is unique when it exists. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.) (Revised by NM, 17-Jun-2017.)
𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑌 = 𝐾    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ Conn)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ 𝑛-Locally Conn)    &   (𝜑𝑂𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺𝑂))       (𝜑 → ∃*𝑓 ∈ (𝐾 Cn 𝐶)((𝐹𝑓) = 𝐺 ∧ (𝑓𝑂) = 𝑃))

Theoremcvmliftlem1 31393* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. In cvmliftlem15 31406, we picked an 𝑁 large enough so that the sections (𝐺 “ [(𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁, 𝑘 / 𝑁]) are all contained in an even covering, and the function 𝑇 enumerates these even coverings. So 1st ‘(𝑇𝑀) is a neighborhood of (𝐺 “ [(𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁, 𝑀 / 𝑁]), and 2nd ‘(𝑇𝑀) is an even covering of 1st ‘(𝑇𝑀), which is to say a disjoint union of open sets in 𝐶 whose image is 1st ‘(𝑇𝑀). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁))       ((𝜑𝜓) → (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑀)) ∈ (𝑆‘(1st ‘(𝑇𝑀))))

Theoremcvmliftlem2 31394* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. 𝑊 = [(𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁, 𝑘 / 𝑁] is a subset of [0, 1] for each 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))       ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑊 ⊆ (0[,]1))

Theoremcvmliftlem3 31395* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. Since 1st ‘(𝑇𝑀) is a neighborhood of (𝐺𝑊), every element 𝐴𝑊 satisfies (𝐺𝐴) ∈ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑀)). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐴𝑊)       ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝐺𝐴) ∈ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑀)))

Theoremcvmliftlem4 31396* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. The function 𝑄 will be our lifted path, defined piecewise on each section [(𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁, 𝑀 / 𝑁] for 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁). For 𝑀 = 0, it is a "seed" value which makes the rest of the recursion work, a singleton function mapping 0 to 𝑃. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = seq0((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑧 ∈ (((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑚 / 𝑁)) ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑚))(𝑥‘((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧)))), (( I ↾ ℕ) ∪ {⟨0, {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}⟩}))       (𝑄‘0) = {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}

Theoremcvmliftlem5 31397* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. Definition of 𝑄 at a successor. This is a function defined on 𝑊 as (𝑇𝐼) ∘ 𝐺 where 𝐼 is the unique covering set of 2nd ‘(𝑇𝑀) that contains 𝑄(𝑀 − 1) evaluated at the last defined point, namely (𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁 (note that for 𝑀 = 1 this is using the seed value 𝑄(0)(0) = 𝑃). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = seq0((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑧 ∈ (((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑚 / 𝑁)) ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑚))(𝑥‘((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧)))), (( I ↾ ℕ) ∪ {⟨0, {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}⟩}))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))       ((𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑄𝑀) = (𝑧𝑊 ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑀))((𝑄‘(𝑀 − 1))‘((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧))))

Theoremcvmliftlem6 31398* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. Induction step for cvmliftlem7 31399. Assuming that 𝑄(𝑀 − 1) is defined at (𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁 and is a preimage of 𝐺((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁), the next segment 𝑄(𝑀) is also defined and is a function on 𝑊 which is a lift 𝐺 for this segment. This follows explicitly from the definition 𝑄(𝑀) = (𝐹𝐼) ∘ 𝐺 since 𝐺 is in 1st ‘(𝐹𝑀) for the entire interval so that (𝐹𝐼) maps this into 𝐼 and 𝐹𝑄 maps back to 𝐺. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = seq0((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑧 ∈ (((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑚 / 𝑁)) ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑚))(𝑥‘((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧)))), (( I ↾ ℕ) ∪ {⟨0, {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}⟩}))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝑄‘(𝑀 − 1))‘((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ (𝐹 “ {(𝐺‘((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁))}))       ((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝑄𝑀):𝑊𝐵 ∧ (𝐹 ∘ (𝑄𝑀)) = (𝐺𝑊)))

Theoremcvmliftlem7 31399* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. Prove by induction that every 𝑄 function is well-defined (we can immediately follow this theorem with cvmliftlem6 31398 to show functionality and lifting of 𝑄). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = seq0((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑧 ∈ (((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑚 / 𝑁)) ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑚))(𝑥‘((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧)))), (( I ↾ ℕ) ∪ {⟨0, {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}⟩}))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))       ((𝜑𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁)) → ((𝑄‘(𝑀 − 1))‘((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ (𝐹 “ {(𝐺‘((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁))}))

Theoremcvmliftlem8 31400* Lemma for cvmlift 31407. The functions 𝑄 are continuous functions because they are defined as (𝐹𝐼) ∘ 𝐺 where 𝐺 is continuous and (𝐹𝐼) is a homeomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2015.)
𝑆 = (𝑘𝐽 ↦ {𝑠 ∈ (𝒫 𝐶 ∖ {∅}) ∣ ( 𝑠 = (𝐹𝑘) ∧ ∀𝑢𝑠 (∀𝑣 ∈ (𝑠 ∖ {𝑢})(𝑢𝑣) = ∅ ∧ (𝐹𝑢) ∈ ((𝐶t 𝑢)Homeo(𝐽t 𝑘))))})    &   𝐵 = 𝐶    &   𝑋 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶 CovMap 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (II Cn 𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) = (𝐺‘0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇:(1...𝑁)⟶ 𝑗𝐽 ({𝑗} × (𝑆𝑗)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(𝐺 “ (((𝑘 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑘 / 𝑁))) ⊆ (1st ‘(𝑇𝑘)))    &   𝐿 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = seq0((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑧 ∈ (((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑚 / 𝑁)) ↦ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑏 ∈ (2nd ‘(𝑇𝑚))(𝑥‘((𝑚 − 1) / 𝑁)) ∈ 𝑏))‘(𝐺𝑧)))), (( I ↾ ℕ) ∪ {⟨0, {⟨0, 𝑃⟩}⟩}))    &   𝑊 = (((𝑀 − 1) / 𝑁)[,](𝑀 / 𝑁))       ((𝜑𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁)) → (𝑄𝑀) ∈ ((𝐿t 𝑊) Cn 𝐶))

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