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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 26901-27000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theorem2wlkd 26901 Construction of a walk from two given edges in a graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 23-Jan-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 14-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝜑𝐹(Walks‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theorem2wlkond 26902 A walk of length 2 from one vertex to another, different vertex via a third vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝜑𝐹(𝐴(WalksOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑃)

Theorem2trld 26903 Construction of a trail from two given edges in a graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 24-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝐾)       (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theorem2trlond 26904 A trail of length 2 from one vertex to another, different vertex via a third vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝐾)       (𝜑𝐹(𝐴(TrailsOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑃)

Theorem2pthd 26905 A path of length 2 from one vertex to another vertex via a third vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 24-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝐾)       (𝜑𝐹(Paths‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theorem2spthd 26906 A simple path of length 2 from one vertex to another, different vertex via a third vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑𝐹(SPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theorem2pthond 26907 A simple path of length 2 from one vertex to another, different vertex via a third vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 24-Jan-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Jan-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2021.)
𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ⊆ (𝐼𝐽) ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ⊆ (𝐼𝐾)))    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑𝐹(𝐴(SPathsOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑃)

Theorem2pthon3v 26908* For a vertex adjacent to two other vertices there is a simple path of length 2 between these other vertices in a hypergraph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 24-Jan-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) ∧ (𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐶) ∧ ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸)) → ∃𝑓𝑝(𝑓(𝐴(SPathsOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑝 ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2))

Theoremumgr2adedgwlklem 26909 Lemma for umgr2adedgwlk 26910, umgr2adedgspth 26913, etc. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ {𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) → ((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺))))

Theoremumgr2adedgwlk 26910 In a multigraph, two adjacent edges form a walk of length 2. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UMGraph)    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐽) = {𝐴, 𝐵})    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐾) = {𝐵, 𝐶})       (𝜑 → (𝐹(Walks‘𝐺)𝑃 ∧ (#‘𝐹) = 2 ∧ (𝐴 = (𝑃‘0) ∧ 𝐵 = (𝑃‘1) ∧ 𝐶 = (𝑃‘2))))

Theoremumgr2adedgwlkon 26911 In a multigraph, two adjacent edges form a walk between two vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UMGraph)    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐽) = {𝐴, 𝐵})    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐾) = {𝐵, 𝐶})       (𝜑𝐹(𝐴(WalksOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑃)

Theoremumgr2adedgwlkonALT 26912 Alternate proof for umgr2adedgwlkon 26911, using umgr2adedgwlk 26910, but with a much longer proof! In a multigraph, two adjacent edges form a walk between two (different) vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UMGraph)    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐽) = {𝐴, 𝐵})    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐾) = {𝐵, 𝐶})       (𝜑𝐹(𝐴(WalksOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑃)

Theoremumgr2adedgspth 26913 In a multigraph, two adjacent edges with different endvertices form a simple path of length 2. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = ⟨“𝐽𝐾”⟩    &   𝑃 = ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UMGraph)    &   (𝜑 → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐽) = {𝐴, 𝐵})    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼𝐾) = {𝐵, 𝐶})    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑𝐹(SPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theoremumgr2wlk 26914* In a multigraph, there is a walk of length 2 for each pair of adjacent edges. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ {𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) → ∃𝑓𝑝(𝑓(Walks‘𝐺)𝑝 ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2 ∧ (𝐴 = (𝑝‘0) ∧ 𝐵 = (𝑝‘1) ∧ 𝐶 = (𝑝‘2))))

Theoremumgr2wlkon 26915* For each pair of adjacent edges in a multigraph, there is a walk of length 2 between the not common vertices of the edges. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2021.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ {𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) → ∃𝑓𝑝 𝑓(𝐴(WalksOn‘𝐺)𝐶)𝑝)

Theoremelwwlks2s3 26916* A walk of length 2 as word is a length 3 string. (Contributed by AV, 18-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (2 WWalksN 𝐺) → ∃𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 𝑊 = ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩)

Theoremmidwwlks2s3 26917* There is a vertex between the endpoints of a walk of length 2 between two vertices as length 3 string. (Contributed by AV, 10-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (2 WWalksN 𝐺) → ∃𝑏𝑉 (𝑊‘1) = 𝑏)

Theoremwwlks2onv 26918 If a length 3 string represents a walk of length 2, its components are vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Feb-2018.) (Proof shortened by AV, 14-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐵𝑈 ∧ ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶)) → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉))

Theoremelwwlks2ons3im 26919 A walk as word of length 2 between two vertices is a length 3 string and its second symbol is a vertex. (Contributed by AV, 14-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) → (𝑊 = ⟨“𝐴(𝑊‘1)𝐶”⟩ ∧ (𝑊‘1) ∈ 𝑉))

Theoremelwwlks2ons3 26920* For each walk of length 2 between two vertices, there is a third vertex in the middle of the walk. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 14-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑏𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∧ ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶)))

Theoremelwwlks2ons3OLD 26921* Obsolete version of elwwlks2ons3 26920 as of 13-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺𝑈𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑏𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∧ ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶))))

Theorems3wwlks2on 26922* A length 3 string which represents a walk of length 2 between two vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉) → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑓(𝑓(Walks‘𝐺)⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2)))

Theoremumgrwwlks2on 26923 A walk of length 2 between two vertices as word in a multigraph. This theorem would also hold for pseudographs, but to prove this the cases 𝐴 = 𝐵 and/or 𝐵 = 𝐶 must be considered separately. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremwwlks2onsym 26924 There is a walk of length 2 from one vertex to another vertex iff there is a walk of length 2 from the other vertex to the first vertex. (Contributed by AV, 7-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ⟨“𝐶𝐵𝐴”⟩ ∈ (𝐶(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐴)))

Theoremelwwlks2on 26925* A walk of length 2 between two vertices as length 3 string. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑏𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∧ ∃𝑓(𝑓(Walks‘𝐺)𝑊 ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2))))

Theoremelwspths2on 26926* A simple path of length 2 between two vertices (in a graph) as length 3 string. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 9-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑏𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∧ ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐶))))

Theoremwpthswwlks2on 26927 For two different vertices, a walk of length 2 between these vertices is a simple path of length 2 between these vertices in a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 2-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 13-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐵) = (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵))

Theoremwpthswwlks2onOLD 26928 Obsolete version of wpthswwlks2on 26927 as of 16-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 2-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 13-May-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐵) = (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵))

Theorem2wspdisj 26929* All simple paths of length 2 from a fixed vertex to another vertex are disjunct. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Jan-2022.)
Disj 𝑏 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝐴})(𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝑏)

Theorem2wspiundisj 26930* All simple paths of length 2 from a fixed vertex to another vertex are disjunct. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 14-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 9-Jan-2022.)
Disj 𝑎𝑉 𝑏 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑎})(𝑎(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝑏)

Theoremusgr2wspthons3 26931 A simple path of length 2 between two vertices represented as length 3 string corresponds to two adjacent edges in a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ (𝐴𝐶 ∧ {𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremusgr2wspthon 26932* A simple path of length 2 between two vertices corresponds to two adjacent edges in a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 9-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → (𝑇 ∈ (𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑏𝑉 ((𝑇 = ⟨“𝐴𝑏𝐶”⟩ ∧ 𝐴𝐶) ∧ ({𝐴, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸))))

Theoremelwwlks2 26933* A walk of length 2 between two vertices as length 3 string in a pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 14-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UPGraph → (𝑊 ∈ (2 WWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ∃𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∧ ∃𝑓𝑝(𝑓(Walks‘𝐺)𝑝 ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2 ∧ (𝑎 = (𝑝‘0) ∧ 𝑏 = (𝑝‘1) ∧ 𝑐 = (𝑝‘2))))))

Theoremelwspths2spth 26934* A simple path of length 2 between two vertices as length 3 string in a pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 28-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UPGraph → (𝑊 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ↔ ∃𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 (𝑊 = ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∧ ∃𝑓𝑝(𝑓(SPaths‘𝐺)𝑝 ∧ (#‘𝑓) = 2 ∧ (𝑎 = (𝑝‘0) ∧ 𝑏 = (𝑝‘1) ∧ 𝑐 = (𝑝‘2))))))

16.3.9  Walks in regular graphs

Theoremrusgrnumwwlkl1 26935* In a k-regular graph, there are k walks (as word) of length 1 starting at each vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 28-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾𝑃𝑉) → (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (1 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑃}) = 𝐾)

Theoremrusgrnumwwlkslem 26936* Lemma for rusgrnumwwlks 26941. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Aug-2018.)
(𝑌 ∈ {𝑤𝑍 ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑃} → {𝑤𝑋 ∣ (𝜑𝜓)} = {𝑤𝑋 ∣ (𝜑 ∧ (𝑌‘0) = 𝑃𝜓)})

Theoremrusgrnumwwlklem 26937* Lemma for rusgrnumwwlk 26942 etc. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝑃𝐿𝑁) = (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑃}))

Theoremrusgrnumwwlkb0 26938* Induction base 0 for rusgrnumwwlk 26942. Here, we do not need the regularity of the graph yet. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑃𝑉) → (𝑃𝐿0) = 1)

Theoremrusgrnumwwlkb1 26939* Induction base 1 for rusgrnumwwlk 26942. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 28-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾𝑃𝑉) → (𝑃𝐿1) = 𝐾)

Theoremrusgr0edg 26940* Special case for graphs without edges: There are no walks of length greater than 0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 26-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝐺RegUSGraph0 ∧ 𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑃𝐿𝑁) = 0)

Theoremrusgrnumwwlks 26941* Induction step for rusgrnumwwlk 26942. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Aug-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾 ∧ (𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)) → ((𝑃𝐿𝑁) = (𝐾𝑁) → (𝑃𝐿(𝑁 + 1)) = (𝐾↑(𝑁 + 1))))

Theoremrusgrnumwwlk 26942* In a 𝐾-regular graph, the number of walks of a fixed length 𝑁 from a fixed vertex is 𝐾 to the power of 𝑁. By definition, (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) is the set of walks (as words) with length 𝑁, and (𝑃𝐿𝑁) is the number of walks with length 𝑁 starting at the vertex 𝑃. Because of the 𝐾-regularity, a walk can be continued in 𝐾 different ways at the end vertex of the walk, and this repeated 𝑁 times.

This theorem even holds for 𝑁 = 0: in this case, the walk consists of only one vertex 𝑃, so the number of walks of length 𝑁 = 0 starting with 𝑃 is (𝐾↑0) = 1. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Aug-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)

𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐿 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾 ∧ (𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)) → (𝑃𝐿𝑁) = (𝐾𝑁))

Theoremrusgrnumwwlkg 26943* In a 𝐾-regular graph, the number of walks (as words) of a fixed length 𝑁 from a fixed vertex is 𝐾 to the power of 𝑁. Closed form of rusgrnumwwlk 26942. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾 ∧ (𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)) → (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑃}) = (𝐾𝑁))

Theoremrusgrnumwlkg 26944* In a k-regular graph, the number of walks of a fixed length n from a fixed vertex is k to the power of n. This theorem corresponds to statement 11 in [Huneke] p. 2: "The total number of walks v(0) v(1) ... v(n-2) from a fixed vertex v = v(0) is k^(n-2) as G is k-regular.". This theorem even holds for n=0: then the walk consists of only one vertex v(0), so the number of walks of length n=0 starting with v=v(0) is 1=k^0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Aug-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾 ∧ (𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑃𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)) → (#‘{𝑤 ∈ (Walks‘𝐺) ∣ ((#‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑃)}) = (𝐾𝑁))

Theoremclwwlknclwwlkdif 26945* The set 𝐴 of walks of length 𝑁 starting with a fixed vertex 𝑉 and ending not at this vertex is the difference between the set 𝐶 of walks of length 𝑁 starting with this vertex 𝑋 and the set 𝐵 of closed walks of length 𝑁 anchored at this vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝐴 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ( lastS ‘𝑤) ≠ 𝑋)}    &   𝐵 = (𝑋(𝑁 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝑋)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋}       𝐴 = (𝐶𝐵)

Theoremclwwlknclwwlkdifnum 26946* In a 𝐾-regular graph, the size of the set 𝐴 of walks of length 𝑁 starting with a fixed vertex 𝑋 and ending not at this vertex is the difference between 𝐾 to the power of 𝑁 and the size of the set 𝐵 of closed walks of length 𝑁 anchored at this vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 8-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝐴 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ( lastS ‘𝑤) ≠ 𝑋)}    &   𝐵 = (𝑋(𝑁 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝑋)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾𝑉 ∈ Fin) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)) → (#‘𝐴) = ((𝐾𝑁) − (#‘𝐵)))

TheoremclwwlknclwwlkdifsOLD 26947 Obsolete version of clwwlknclwwlkdif 26945 as of 8-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ( lastS ‘𝑤) ≠ 𝑋)}    &   𝐵 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (( lastS ‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0) ∧ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋)}       𝐴 = ({𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋} ∖ 𝐵)

TheoremclwwlknclwwlkdifnumOLD 26948* Obsolete version of clwwlknclwwlkdifnum 26946 as of 8-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-May-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐴 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ( lastS ‘𝑤) ≠ 𝑋)}    &   𝐵 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (( lastS ‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0) ∧ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋)}    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (((𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾𝑉 ∈ Fin) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ)) → (#‘𝐴) = ((𝐾𝑁) − (#‘𝐵)))

16.3.10  Closed walks as words

In general, a closed walk is an alternating sequence of vertices and edges, as defined in df-clwlks 26723: p(0) e(f(1)) p(1) e(f(2)) ... p(n-1) e(f(n)) p(n), with p(n) = p(0). Often, it is sufficient to refer to a walk by the (cyclic) sequence of its vertices, i.e omitting its edges in its representation: p(0) p(1) ... p(n-1) p(0), see the corresponding remark on cycles (which are special closed walks) in [Diestel] p. 7. As for "walks as words" in general, the concept of a Word, see df-word 13331, is also used in definitions df-clwwlk 26950 and df-clwwlkn 26983, and the representation of a closed walk as the sequence of its vertices is called "closed walk as word".

In contrast to "walks as words", the terminating vertex p(n) of a closed walk is omitted in the representation of a closed walk as word, see definitions df-clwwlk 26950 and df-clwwlkn 26983, because it is always equal to the first vertex of the closed walk. This represenation has the advantage that the vertices can be cyclically shifted without changing the represented closed walk. Furthermore, the length of a closed walk (i.e. the number of its edges) equals the number of symbols/vertices of the word representing the closed walk.

To avoid to handle the degenerate case of representing a (closed) walk of length 0 by the empty word, this case is excluded within the definition (𝑤 ≠ ∅). This is because a walk of length 0 is anchored at an arbitrary vertex by the general definition for closed walks, see 0clwlkv 27109, which neither can be reflected by the empty word nor by a singleton word ⟨“𝑣”⟩ with vertex v : ⟨“𝑣”⟩ represents the walk "𝑣 𝑣", which is a (closed) walk of length 1 (if there is an edge/loop from 𝑣 to 𝑣), see loopclwwlkn1b 27005.

Therefore, a closed walk corresponds to a closed walk as word only for walks of length at least 1, see clwlkclwwlk2 26969. Although the set ClWWalksN of all closed walks of a fixed length as words over the set of vertices is defined as function over 0, the fixed length is usually not 0, because (0 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅ (see clwwlkn0 26989).

Analogous to (𝐴(𝑁 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵), the set of walks of a fixed length 𝑁 between two vertices 𝐴 and 𝐵, the set (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) of closed walks of a fixed length 𝑁 anchored at a fixed vertex 𝑋 is defined by df-clwwlknon 27061. This definition is also based on 0 instead of , with (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)0) = ∅ (see clwwlk0on0 27067). clwwlknon1le1 27076 states that there is at most one (closed) walk of length 1 on a vertex, which would consist of a loop (see clwwlknon1loop 27073). And in a 𝐾-regular graph, there are 𝐾 closed walks of length 2 on each vertex, see clwwlknon2num 27079.

16.3.10.1  Closed walks as words

Syntaxcclwwlk 26949 Extend class notation with closed walks (in an undirected graph) as word over the set of vertices.
class ClWWalks

Definitiondf-clwwlk 26950* Define the set of all closed walks (in an undirected graph) as words over the set of vertices. Such a word corresponds to the sequence p(0) p(1) ... p(n-1) of the vertices in a closed walk p(0) e(f(1)) p(1) e(f(2)) ... p(n-1) e(f(n)) p(n)=p(0) as defined in df-clwlks 26723. Notice that the word does not contain the terminating vertex p(n) of the walk, because it is always equal to the first vertex of the closed walk. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
ClWWalks = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑤 ∈ Word (Vtx‘𝑔) ∣ (𝑤 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑤) − 1)){(𝑤𝑖), (𝑤‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ (Edg‘𝑔) ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑤), (𝑤‘0)} ∈ (Edg‘𝑔))})

Theoremclwwlk 26951* The set of closed walks (in an undirected graph) as words over the set of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (ClWWalks‘𝐺) = {𝑤 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∣ (𝑤 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑤) − 1)){(𝑤𝑖), (𝑤‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑤), (𝑤‘0)} ∈ 𝐸)}

Theoremisclwwlk 26952* Properties of a word to represent a closed walk (in an undirected graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ↔ ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑊 ≠ ∅) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremclwwlkbp 26953 Basic properties of a closed walk (in an undirected graph) as word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) → (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑊 ≠ ∅))

Theoremclwwlkgt0 26954 There is no empty closed walk (i.e. a closed walk without any edge) represented by a word of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
(𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) → 0 < (#‘𝑊))

Theoremclwwlksswrd 26955 Closed walks (represented by words) are words. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Apr-2021.)
(ClWWalks‘𝐺) ⊆ Word (Vtx‘𝐺)

Theoremclwwlk1loop 26956 A closed walk of length 1 is a loop. See also clwlkl1loop 26734. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
((𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 1) → {(𝑊‘0), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺))

Theoremumgrclwwlkge2 26957 A closed walk in a multigraph has a length of at least 2 (because it cannot have a loop). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 16-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
(𝐺 ∈ UMGraph → (𝑃 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) → 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2a1 26958* Lemma 1 for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
((𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → ((( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((((#‘𝑃) − 1) − 0) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 ∧ {(𝑃‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ ran 𝐸)) → ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2a2 26959* Lemma 2 for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Jun-2018.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       ((𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (#‘𝐹) = ((#‘𝑃) − 1))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2a3 26960* Lemma 3 for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Jun-2018.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       ((𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (𝑃‘(#‘𝐹)) = ( lastS ‘𝑃))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2fv1 26961* Lemma 4a for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       (((#‘𝑃) ∈ ℕ0𝐼 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 2))) → (𝐹𝐼) = (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝐼), (𝑃‘(𝐼 + 1))}))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2fv2 26962* Lemma 4b for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       (((#‘𝑃) ∈ ℕ0 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (𝐹‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)) = (𝐸‘{(𝑃‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)), (𝑃‘0)}))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2a4 26963* Lemma 4 for clwlkclwwlklem2a 26964. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       ((𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1𝑅𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → ((( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ 𝐼 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1))) → ({(𝑃𝐼), (𝑃‘(𝐼 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 → (𝐸‘(𝐹𝐼)) = {(𝑃𝐼), (𝑃‘(𝐼 + 1))})))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2a 26964* Lemma for clwlkclwwlklem2 26966. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑃) − 1)) ↦ if(𝑥 < ((#‘𝑃) − 2), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 1))}), (𝐸‘{(𝑃𝑥), (𝑃‘0)})))       ((𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1𝑅𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → ((( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((((#‘𝑃) − 1) − 0) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 ∧ {(𝑃‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ ran 𝐸)) → ((𝐹 ∈ Word dom 𝐸𝑃:(0...(#‘𝐹))⟶𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(#‘𝐹))(𝐸‘(𝐹𝑖)) = {(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))}) ∧ (𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(#‘𝐹)))))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem1 26965* Lemma 1 for clwlkclwwlk 26968. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
((𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1𝑅𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → ((( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((((#‘𝑃) − 1) − 0) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 ∧ {(𝑃‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ ran 𝐸)) → ∃𝑓((𝑓 ∈ Word dom 𝐸𝑃:(0...(#‘𝑓))⟶𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(#‘𝑓))(𝐸‘(𝑓𝑖)) = {(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))}) ∧ (𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(#‘𝑓)))))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem2 26966* Lemma 2 for clwlkclwwlk 26968. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
(((𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1𝑅𝐹 ∈ Word dom 𝐸) ∧ (𝑃:(0...(#‘𝐹))⟶𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(#‘𝐹))(𝐸‘(𝐹𝑖)) = {(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∧ (𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(#‘𝐹)))) → (( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝐹) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 ∧ {(𝑃‘((#‘𝐹) − 1)), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ ran 𝐸))

Theoremclwlkclwwlklem3 26967* Lemma 3 for clwlkclwwlk 26968. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-Apr-2021.)
((𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1𝑅𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (∃𝑓((𝑓 ∈ Word dom 𝐸𝑃:(0...(#‘𝑓))⟶𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(#‘𝑓))(𝐸‘(𝑓𝑖)) = {(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))}) ∧ (𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(#‘𝑓))) ↔ (( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((((#‘𝑃) − 1) − 0) − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ ran 𝐸 ∧ {(𝑃‘((#‘𝑃) − 2)), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ ran 𝐸))))

Theoremclwlkclwwlk 26968* A closed walk as word of length at least 2 corresponds to a closed walk in a simple pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (∃𝑓 𝑓(ClWalks‘𝐺)𝑃 ↔ (( lastS ‘𝑃) = (𝑃‘0) ∧ (𝑃 substr ⟨0, ((#‘𝑃) − 1)⟩) ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))))

Theoremclwlkclwwlk2 26969* A closed walk corresponds to a closed walk as word in a simple pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 7-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑃 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ 1 ≤ (#‘𝑃)) → (∃𝑓 𝑓(ClWalks‘𝐺)(𝑃 ++ ⟨“(𝑃‘0)”⟩) ↔ 𝑃 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺)))

Theoremclwwisshclwwslemlem 26970* Lemma for clwwisshclwwslem 26971. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Mar-2018.)
(((𝐿 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(𝐿 − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝑅 ∧ {(𝑊‘(𝐿 − 1)), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝑅) → {(𝑊‘((𝐴 + 𝐵) mod 𝐿)), (𝑊‘(((𝐴 + 1) + 𝐵) mod 𝐿))} ∈ 𝑅)

Theoremclwwisshclwwslem 26971* Lemma for clwwisshclwws 26972. (Contributed by AV, 24-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-Apr-2021.)
((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑁 ∈ (1..^(#‘𝑊))) → ((∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) → ∀𝑗 ∈ (0..^((#‘(𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁)) − 1)){((𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁)‘𝑗), ((𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁)‘(𝑗 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremclwwisshclwws 26972 Cyclically shifting a closed walk as word results in a closed walk as word (in an undirected graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-Apr-2021.)
((𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (0..^(#‘𝑊))) → (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁) ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))

Theoremclwwisshclwwsn 26973 Cyclically shifting a closed walk as word results in a closed walk as word (in an undirected graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
((𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑊))) → (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁) ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))

Theoremerclwwlkrel 26974 is a relation. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       Rel

Theoremerclwwlkeq 26975* Two classes are equivalent regarding if both are words and one is the other cyclically shifted. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑈𝑋𝑊𝑌) → (𝑈 𝑊 ↔ (𝑈 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑊))𝑈 = (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑛))))

Theoremerclwwlkeqlen 26976* If two classes are equivalent regarding , then they are words of the same length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑈𝑋𝑊𝑌) → (𝑈 𝑊 → (#‘𝑈) = (#‘𝑊)))

Theoremerclwwlkref 26977* is a reflexive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ↔ 𝑥 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlksym 26978* is a symmetric relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlktr 26979* is a transitive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧) → 𝑥 𝑧)

Theoremerclwwlk 26980* is an equivalence relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}        Er (ClWWalks‘𝐺)

16.3.10.2  Closed walks of a fixed length as words

Syntaxcclwwlkn 26981 Extend class notation with closed walks (in an undirected graph) of a fixed length as word over the set of vertices.
class ClWWalksN

Syntaxcclwwlknold 26982 Obsolete version of ClWWalksN as of 22-Mar-2022.
class ClWWalksNOLD

Definitiondf-clwwlkn 26983* Define the set of all closed walks of a fixed length 𝑛 as words over the set of vertices in a graph 𝑔. If 0 < 𝑛, such a word corresponds to the sequence p(0) p(1) ... p(n-1) of the vertices in a closed walk p(0) e(f(1)) p(1) e(f(2)) ... p(n-1) e(f(n)) p(n)=p(0) as defined in df-clwlks 26723. For 𝑛 = 0, the set is empty, see clwwlkn0 26989. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
ClWWalksN = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0, 𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝑔) ∣ (#‘𝑤) = 𝑛})

Definitiondf-clwwlknOLD 26984* Obsolete version of df-clwwlkn 26983 as of 22-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.)
ClWWalksNOLD = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝑔) ∣ (#‘𝑤) = 𝑛})

Theoremclwwlkn 26985* The set of closed walks of a fixed length 𝑁 as words over the set of vertices in a graph 𝐺. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2021.)
(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (#‘𝑤) = 𝑁}

TheoremclwwlknOLD 26986* Obsolete version of clwwlkn 26985 as of 22-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑁ClWWalksNOLD𝐺) = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (#‘𝑤) = 𝑁})

Theoremisclwwlkn 26987 A word over the set of vertices representing a closed walk of a fixed length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2021.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁))

TheoremisclwwlknOLD 26988 Obsolete version of isclwwlkn 26987 as of 22-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁ClWWalksNOLD𝐺) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁)))

Theoremclwwlkn0 26989 There is no closed walk of length 0 (i.e. a closed walk without any edge) represented by a word of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
(0 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅

Theoremclwwlkneq0 26990 Sufficient conditions for ClWWalksN to be empty. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 24-Feb-2022.)
((𝐺 ∉ V ∨ 𝑁 ∉ ℕ) → (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅)

Theoremclwwlkn0OLD 26991 Obsolete version of clwwlkn0 26989 as of 22-Mar-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(0 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅

Theoremclwwlkclwwlkn 26992 A closed walk of a fixed length as word is a closed walk (in an undirected graph) as word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))

Theoremclwwlksclwwlkn 26993 The closed walks of a fixed length as words are closed walks (in an undirected graph) as words. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-Apr-2021.)
(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ⊆ (ClWWalks‘𝐺)

Theoremclwwlknlen 26994 The length of a word representing a closed walk of a fixed length is this fixed length. (Contributed by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁)

Theoremclwwlknnn 26995 The length of a closed walk of a fixed length as word is a positive integer. (Contributed by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑁 ∈ ℕ)

Theoremclwwlknwrd 26996 A closed walk of a fixed length as word is a word over the vertices. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉)

Theoremclwwlknbp 26997 Basic properties of a closed walk of a fixed length as word. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁))

Theoremisclwwlknx 26998* Characterization of a word representing a closed walk of a fixed length, definition of ClWWalks expanded. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((#‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁)))

Theoremclwwlknp 26999* Properties of a set being a closed walk (represented by a word). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (#‘𝑊) = 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(𝑁 − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {( lastS ‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremclwwlknwwlksn 27000 A word representing a closed walk of length 𝑁 also represents a walk of length 𝑁 − 1. The walk is one edge shorter than the closed walk, because the last edge connecting the last with the first vertex is missing. For example, if ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∈ (3 ClWWalksN 𝐺) represents a closed walk "abca" of length 3, then ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∈ (2 WWalksN 𝐺) represents a walk "abc" (not closed if 𝑎𝑐) of length 2, and ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑎”⟩ ∈ (3 WWalksN 𝐺) represents also a closed walk "abca" of length 3. (Contributed by AV, 24-Jan-2022.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ ((𝑁 − 1) WWalksN 𝐺))

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268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 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