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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 2601-2700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremsbalv 2601* Quantify with new variable inside substitution. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1993.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑𝜓)       ([𝑦 / 𝑥]∀𝑧𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑧𝜓)
 
Theoremsbco4lem 2602* Lemma for sbco4 2603. It replaces the temporary variable 𝑣 with another temporary variable 𝑤. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Sep-2018.)
([𝑥 / 𝑣][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑣 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ [𝑥 / 𝑤][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbco4 2603* Two ways of exchanging two variables. Both sides of the biconditional exchange 𝑥 and 𝑦, either via two temporary variables 𝑢 and 𝑣, or a single temporary 𝑤. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑢][𝑥 / 𝑣][𝑢 / 𝑥][𝑣 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ [𝑥 / 𝑤][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theorem2sb8e 2604* An equivalent expression for double existence. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 2-Nov-2019.)
(∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤[𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremexsb 2605* An equivalent expression for existence. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
 
Theorem2exsb 2606* An equivalent expression for double existence. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Sep-2018.)
(∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → 𝜑))
 
1.6  Existential uniqueness
 
Syntaxweu 2607 Extend wff definition to include existential uniqueness ("there exists a unique 𝑥 such that 𝜑").
wff ∃!𝑥𝜑
 
Syntaxwmo 2608 Extend wff definition to include uniqueness ("there exists at most one 𝑥 such that 𝜑").
wff ∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremeujust 2609* A soundness justification theorem for df-eu 2611, showing that the definition is equivalent to itself with its dummy variable renamed. Note that 𝑦 and 𝑧 needn't be distinct variables. See eujustALT 2610 for a proof that provides an example of how it can be achieved through the use of dvelim 2477. (Contributed by NM, 11-Mar-2010.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
(∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑧))
 
TheoremeujustALT 2610* Alternate proof of eujust 2609 illustrating the use of dvelim 2477. (Contributed by NM, 11-Mar-2010.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑧))
 
Definitiondf-eu 2611* Define existential uniqueness, i.e. "there exists exactly one 𝑥 such that 𝜑." Definition 10.1 of [BellMachover] p. 97; also Definition *14.02 of [WhiteheadRussell] p. 175. Other possible definitions are given by eu1 2648, eu2 2647, eu3v 2635, and eu5 2633 (which in some cases we show with a hypothesis 𝜑 → ∀𝑦𝜑 in place of a distinct variable condition on 𝑦 and 𝜑). Double uniqueness is tricky: ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 does not mean "exactly one 𝑥 and one 𝑦 " (see 2eu4 2694). (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Definitiondf-mo 2612 Define "there exists at most one 𝑥 such that 𝜑." Here we define it in terms of existential uniqueness. Notation of [BellMachover] p. 460, whose definition we show as mo3 2645. For other possible definitions see mo2 2616 and mo4 2655. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 → ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeuequ1 2613* Equality has existential uniqueness. Special case of eueq1 3520 proved using only predicate calculus. The proof needs 𝑦 = 𝑧 be free of 𝑥. This is ensured by having 𝑥 and 𝑦 be distinct. Alternately, a distinctor ¬ ∀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑦 could have been used instead. (Contributed by Stefan Allan, 4-Dec-2008.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 8-Sep-2019.)
∃!𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
Theoremmo2v 2614* Alternate definition of "at most one." Unlike mo2 2616, which is slightly more general, it does not depend on ax-11 2183 and ax-13 2391, whence it is preferable within predicate logic. Elsewhere, most theorems depend on these axioms anyway, so this advantage is no longer important. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 27-May-2019.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 10-Nov-2019.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremeuf 2615* A version of the existential uniqueness definition with a hypothesis instead of a distinct variable condition. (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Oct-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremmo2 2616* Alternate definition of "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) Restrict dummy variable z. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 28-May-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremnfeu1 2617 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥∃!𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremnfmo1 2618 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremnfeud2 2619 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 4-Oct-2018.)
𝑦𝜑    &   ((𝜑 ∧ ¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦) → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfmod2 2620 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   ((𝜑 ∧ ¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦) → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfeud 2621 Deduction version of nfeu 2623. (Contributed by NM, 15-Feb-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfmod 2622 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfeu 2623 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. Note that 𝑥 and 𝑦 needn't be distinct. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝜑       𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑
 
Theoremnfmo 2624 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.)
𝑥𝜑       𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑
 
Theoremeubid 2625 Formula-building rule for uniqueness quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremmobid 2626 Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremeubidv 2627* Formula-building rule for uniqueness quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremmobidv 2628* Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremeubii 2629 Introduce uniqueness quantifier to both sides of an equivalence. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
(𝜑𝜓)       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜓)
 
Theoremmobii 2630 Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (inference rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Oct-2016.)
(𝜓𝜒)       (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒)
 
Theoremeuex 2631 Existential uniqueness implies existence. For a shorter proof using more axioms, see euexALT 2649. (Contributed by NM, 15-Sep-1993.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 4-Dec-2018.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremexmo 2632 Something exists or at most one exists. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ∨ ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeu5 2633 Uniqueness in terms of "at most one." Revised to reduce dependencies on axioms. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 25-May-2019.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremexmoeu2 2634 Existence implies "at most one" is equivalent to uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeu3v 2635* An alternate way to express existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 8-Jul-1994.) Add a distinct variable condition on 𝜑. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 29-May-2019.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦)))
 
Theoremeumo 2636 Existential uniqueness implies "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.) Reduce axiom usage. (Revised by GL, 19-Feb-2022.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
TheoremeumoOLD 2637 Obsolete proof of eumo 2636 as of 19-Feb-2022. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeumoi 2638 "At most one" inferred from existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-1995.)
∃!𝑥𝜑       ∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremmoabs 2639 Absorption of existence condition by "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 4-Nov-2002.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremexmoeu 2640 Existence in terms of "at most one" and uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 5-Dec-2018.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃*𝑥𝜑 → ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremsb8eu 2641 Variable substitution in uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Aug-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsb8mo 2642 Variable substitution for "at most one." (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃*𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremcbveu 2643 Rule used to change bound variables, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 25-Nov-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremcbvmo 2644 Rule used to change bound variables, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
𝑦𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremmo3 2645* Alternate definition of "at most one." Definition of [BellMachover] p. 460, except that definition has the side condition that 𝑦 not occur in 𝜑 in place of our hypothesis. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 18-Aug-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremmo 2646* Equivalent definitions of "there exists at most one." (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 2-Dec-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremeu2 2647* An alternate way of defining existential uniqueness. Definition 6.10 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 26. (Contributed by NM, 8-Jul-1994.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 2-Dec-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)))
 
Theoremeu1 2648* An alternate way to express uniqueness used by some authors. Exercise 2(b) of [Margaris] p. 110. (Contributed by NM, 20-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 29-Oct-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑦([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦)))
 
TheoremeuexALT 2649 Alternate proof of euex 2631. Shorter but uses more axioms. (Contributed by NM, 15-Sep-1993.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeuor 2650 Introduce a disjunct into a uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2005.)
𝑥𝜑       ((¬ 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜓) → ∃!𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeuorv 2651* Introduce a disjunct into a uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.)
((¬ 𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜓) → ∃!𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeuor2 2652 Introduce or eliminate a disjunct in a uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Dec-2018.)
(¬ ∃𝑥𝜑 → (∃!𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremsbmo 2653* Substitution into "at most one". (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]∃*𝑧𝜑 ↔ ∃*𝑧[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremmo4f 2654* "At most one" expressed using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-2004.)
𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremmo4 2655* "At most one" expressed using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 26-Jul-1995.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremeu4 2656* Uniqueness using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 26-Jul-1995.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑𝜓) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)))
 
Theoremmoim 2657 "At most one" reverses implication. (Contributed by NM, 22-Apr-1995.)
(∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓) → (∃*𝑥𝜓 → ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremmoimi 2658 "At most one" reverses implication. (Contributed by NM, 15-Feb-2006.)
(𝜑𝜓)       (∃*𝑥𝜓 → ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremmoa1 2659 If an implication holds for at most one value, then its consequent holds for at most one value. See also ala1 1890 and exa1 1914. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1995.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 22-Dec-2018.) (Revised by BJ, 29-Mar-2021.)
(∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓) → ∃*𝑥𝜓)
 
Theoremeuimmo 2660 Uniqueness implies "at most one" through reverse implication. (Contributed by NM, 22-Apr-1995.)
(∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓) → (∃!𝑥𝜓 → ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeuim 2661 Add existential uniqueness quantifiers to an implication. Note the reversed implication in the antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 19-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 14-Jun-2011.)
((∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → (∃!𝑥𝜓 → ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremmoan 2662 "At most one" is still the case when a conjunct is added. (Contributed by NM, 22-Apr-1995.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥(𝜓𝜑))
 
Theoremmoani 2663 "At most one" is still true when a conjunct is added. (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.)
∃*𝑥𝜑       ∃*𝑥(𝜓𝜑)
 
Theoremmoor 2664 "At most one" is still the case when a disjunct is removed. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.)
(∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓) → ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremmooran1 2665 "At most one" imports disjunction to conjunction. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
((∃*𝑥𝜑 ∨ ∃*𝑥𝜓) → ∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremmooran2 2666 "At most one" exports disjunction to conjunction. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
(∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓) → (∃*𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃*𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremmoanim 2667 Introduction of a conjunct into "at most one" quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Dec-2018.)
𝑥𝜑       (∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremeuan 2668 Introduction of a conjunct into uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 19-Feb-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Dec-2018.)
𝑥𝜑       (∃!𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremmoanimv 2669* Introduction of a conjunct into "at most one" quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.)
(∃*𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremmoanmo 2670 Nested "at most one" quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 25-Jan-2006.)
∃*𝑥(𝜑 ∧ ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremmoaneu 2671 Nested "at most one" and uniqueness quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 25-Jan-2006.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Dec-2018.)
∃*𝑥(𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeuanv 2672* Introduction of a conjunct into uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.)
(∃!𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜓))
 
Theoremmopick 2673 "At most one" picks a variable value, eliminating an existential quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jan-1997.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 17-Sep-2019.)
((∃*𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → (𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeupick 2674 Existential uniqueness "picks" a variable value for which another wff is true. If there is only one thing 𝑥 such that 𝜑 is true, and there is also an 𝑥 (actually the same one) such that 𝜑 and 𝜓 are both true, then 𝜑 implies 𝜓 regardless of 𝑥. This theorem can be useful for eliminating existential quantifiers in a hypothesis. Compare Theorem *14.26 in [WhiteheadRussell] p. 192. (Contributed by NM, 10-Jul-1994.)
((∃!𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → (𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeupicka 2675 Version of eupick 2674 with closed formulas. (Contributed by NM, 6-Sep-2008.)
((∃!𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → ∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeupickb 2676 Existential uniqueness "pick" showing wff equivalence. (Contributed by NM, 25-Nov-1994.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Dec-2018.)
((∃!𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑥𝜓 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → (𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremeupickbi 2677 Theorem *14.26 in [WhiteheadRussell] p. 192. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 11-Jul-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Dec-2018.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → (∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ↔ ∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓)))
 
Theoremmopick2 2678 "At most one" can show the existence of a common value. In this case we can infer existence of conjunction from a conjunction of existence, and it is one way to achieve the converse of 19.40 1946. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
((∃*𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜒)) → ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓𝜒))
 
Theoremmoexex 2679 "At most one" double quantification. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 28-Dec-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       ((∃*𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓) → ∃*𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremmoexexv 2680* "At most one" double quantification. (Contributed by NM, 26-Jan-1997.)
((∃*𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓) → ∃*𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theorem2moex 2681 Double quantification with "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.)
(∃*𝑥𝑦𝜑 → ∀𝑦∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theorem2euex 2682 Double quantification with existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
(∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 → ∃𝑦∃!𝑥𝜑)
 
Theorem2eumo 2683 Double quantification with existential uniqueness and "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.)
(∃!𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑 → ∃*𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑)
 
Theorem2eu2ex 2684 Double existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.)
(∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝑦𝜑)
 
Theorem2moswap 2685 A condition allowing swap of "at most one" and existential quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-2004.)
(∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝑦𝜑 → ∃*𝑦𝑥𝜑))
 
Theorem2euswap 2686 A condition allowing swap of uniqueness and existential quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-2004.)
(∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 → ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑))
 
Theorem2exeu 2687 Double existential uniqueness implies double uniqueness quantification. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 22-Dec-2016.)
((∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑) → ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑)
 
Theorem2mo2 2688* This theorem extends the idea of "at most one" to expressions in two set variables ("at most one pair 𝑥 and 𝑦". Note: this is not expressed by ∃*𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑). 2eu4 2694 relates this extension to double existential uniqueness, if at least one pair exists. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 26-Oct-2019.)
((∃*𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃*𝑦𝑥𝜑) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)))
 
Theorem2mo 2689* Two equivalent expressions for double "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 2-Nov-2019.)
(∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)) ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑤((𝜑 ∧ [𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑) → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)))
 
Theorem2mos 2690* Double "exists at most one", using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 10-Feb-2005.)
((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)) ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑤((𝜑𝜓) → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)))
 
Theorem2eu1 2691 Double existential uniqueness. This theorem shows a condition under which a "naive" definition matches the correct one. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 11-Nov-2019.)
(∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑 → (∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 ↔ (∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑)))
 
Theorem2eu2 2692 Double existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.)
(∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑 → (∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑))
 
Theorem2eu3 2693 Double existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.)
(∀𝑥𝑦(∃*𝑥𝜑 ∨ ∃*𝑦𝜑) → ((∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦∃!𝑥𝜑) ↔ (∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑)))
 
Theorem2eu4 2694* This theorem provides us with a definition of double existential uniqueness ("exactly one 𝑥 and exactly one 𝑦"). Naively one might think (incorrectly) that it could be defined by ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑. See 2eu1 2691 for a condition under which the naive definition holds and 2exeu 2687 for a one-way implication. See 2eu5 2695 and 2eu8 2698 for alternate definitions. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2001.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 14-Sep-2019.)
((∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑) ↔ (∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤))))
 
Theorem2eu5 2695* An alternate definition of double existential uniqueness (see 2eu4 2694). A mistake sometimes made in the literature is to use ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦 to mean "exactly one 𝑥 and exactly one 𝑦." (For example, see Proposition 7.53 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 53.) It turns out that this is actually a weaker assertion, as can be seen by expanding out the formal definitions. This theorem shows that the erroneous definition can be repaired by conjoining 𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑 as an additional condition. The correct definition apparently has never been published. (∃* means "exists at most one."). (Contributed by NM, 26-Oct-2003.)
((∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∀𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑) ↔ (∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤))))
 
Theorem2eu6 2696* Two equivalent expressions for double existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 2-Oct-2019.)
((∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦(𝜑 ↔ (𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤)))
 
Theorem2eu7 2697 Two equivalent expressions for double existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 19-Feb-2005.)
((∃!𝑥𝑦𝜑 ∧ ∃!𝑦𝑥𝜑) ↔ ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦(∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑦𝜑))
 
Theorem2eu8 2698 Two equivalent expressions for double existential uniqueness. Curiously, we can put ∃! on either of the internal conjuncts but not both. We can also commute ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦 using 2eu7 2697. (Contributed by NM, 20-Feb-2005.)
(∃!𝑥∃!𝑦(∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑦𝜑) ↔ ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦(∃!𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑦𝜑))
 
Theoremexists1 2699* Two ways to express "only one thing exists." The left-hand side requires only one variable to express this. Both sides are false in set theory; see theorem dtru 5006. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.)
(∃!𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑥 ↔ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦)
 
Theoremexists2 2700 A condition implying that at least two things exist. (Contributed by NM, 10-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
((∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑥 ¬ 𝜑) → ¬ ∃!𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑥)
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