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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 25201-25300   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theorem2sqblem 25201 The converse to 2sq 25200. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.)
(𝜑 → (𝑃 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝑃 ≠ 2))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑌 ∈ ℤ))    &   (𝜑𝑃 = ((𝑋↑2) + (𝑌↑2)))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑃 gcd 𝑌) = ((𝑃 · 𝐴) + (𝑌 · 𝐵)))       (𝜑 → (𝑃 mod 4) = 1)

Theorem2sqb 25202* The converse to 2sq 25200. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.)
(𝑃 ∈ ℙ → (∃𝑥 ∈ ℤ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℤ 𝑃 = ((𝑥↑2) + (𝑦↑2)) ↔ (𝑃 = 2 ∨ (𝑃 mod 4) = 1)))

14.4.12  Chebyshev's Weak Prime Number Theorem, Dirichlet's Theorem

Theoremchebbnd1lem1 25203 Lemma for chebbnd1 25206: show a lower bound on π(𝑥) at even integers using similar techniques to those used to prove bpos 25063. (Note that the expression 𝐾 is actually equal to 2 · 𝑁, but proving that is not necessary for the proof, and it's too much work.) The key to the proof is bposlem1 25054, which shows that each term in the expansion ((2 · 𝑁)C𝑁) = ∏𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝↑(𝑝 pCnt ((2 · 𝑁)C𝑁))) is at most 2 · 𝑁, so that the sum really only has nonzero elements up to 2 · 𝑁, and since each term is at most 2 · 𝑁, after taking logs we get the inequality π(2 · 𝑁) · log(2 · 𝑁) ≤ log((2 · 𝑁)C𝑁), and bclbnd 25050 finishes the proof. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Apr-2016.)
𝐾 = if((2 · 𝑁) ≤ ((2 · 𝑁)C𝑁), (2 · 𝑁), ((2 · 𝑁)C𝑁))       (𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘4) → (log‘((4↑𝑁) / 𝑁)) < ((π‘(2 · 𝑁)) · (log‘(2 · 𝑁))))

Theoremchebbnd1lem2 25204 Lemma for chebbnd1 25206: Show that log(𝑁) / 𝑁 does not change too much between 𝑁 and 𝑀 = ⌊(𝑁 / 2). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
𝑀 = (⌊‘(𝑁 / 2))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℝ ∧ 8 ≤ 𝑁) → ((log‘(2 · 𝑀)) / (2 · 𝑀)) < (2 · ((log‘𝑁) / 𝑁)))

Theoremchebbnd1lem3 25205 Lemma for chebbnd1 25206: get a lower bound on π(𝑁) / (𝑁 / log(𝑁)) that is independent of 𝑁. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
𝑀 = (⌊‘(𝑁 / 2))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℝ ∧ 8 ≤ 𝑁) → (((log‘2) − (1 / (2 · e))) / 2) < ((π𝑁) · ((log‘𝑁) / 𝑁)))

Theoremchebbnd1 25206 The Chebyshev bound: The function π(𝑥) is eventually lower bounded by a positive constant times 𝑥 / log(𝑥). Alternatively stated, the function (𝑥 / log(𝑥)) / π(𝑥) is eventually bounded. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞) ↦ ((𝑥 / (log‘𝑥)) / (π𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremchtppilimlem1 25207 Lemma for chtppilim 25209. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (2[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑁𝑐𝐴) / (π𝑁)) < (1 − 𝐴))       (𝜑 → ((𝐴↑2) · ((π𝑁) · (log‘𝑁))) < (θ‘𝑁))

Theoremchtppilimlem2 25208* Lemma for chtppilim 25209. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 1)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑧 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞)(𝑧𝑥 → ((𝐴↑2) · ((π𝑥) · (log‘𝑥))) < (θ‘𝑥)))

Theoremchtppilim 25209 The θ function is asymptotic to π(𝑥)log(𝑥), so it is sufficient to prove θ(𝑥) / 𝑥𝑟 1 to establish the PNT. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞) ↦ ((θ‘𝑥) / ((π𝑥) · (log‘𝑥)))) ⇝𝑟 1

Theoremchto1ub 25210 The θ function is upper bounded by a linear term. Corollary of chtub 24982. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((θ‘𝑥) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremchebbnd2 25211 The Chebyshev bound, part 2: The function π(𝑥) is eventually upper bounded by a positive constant times 𝑥 / log(𝑥). Alternatively stated, the function π(𝑥) / (𝑥 / log(𝑥)) is eventually bounded. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞) ↦ ((π𝑥) / (𝑥 / (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremchto1lb 25212 The θ function is lower bounded by a linear term. Corollary of chebbnd1 25206. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞) ↦ (𝑥 / (θ‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremchpchtlim 25213 The ψ and θ functions are asymptotic to each other, so is sufficient to prove either θ(𝑥) / 𝑥𝑟 1 or ψ(𝑥) / 𝑥𝑟 1 to establish the PNT. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (2[,)+∞) ↦ ((ψ‘𝑥) / (θ‘𝑥))) ⇝𝑟 1

Theoremchpo1ub 25214 The ψ function is upper bounded by a linear term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Apr-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑥) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremchpo1ubb 25215* The ψ function is upper bounded by a linear term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-May-2016.)
𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ (ψ‘𝑥) ≤ (𝑐 · 𝑥)

Theoremvmadivsum 25216* The sum of the von Mangoldt function over 𝑛 is asymptotic to log𝑥 + 𝑂(1). Equation 9.2.13 of [Shapiro], p. 331. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Apr-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremvmadivsumb 25217* Give a total bound on the von Mangoldt sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘(Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) − (log‘𝑥))) ≤ 𝑐

Theoremrplogsumlem1 25218* Lemma for rplogsum 25261. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑛 ∈ (2...𝐴)((log‘𝑛) / (𝑛 · (𝑛 − 1))) ≤ 2)

Theoremrplogsumlem2 25219* Lemma for rplogsum 25261. Equation 9.2.14 of [Shapiro], p. 331. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℤ → Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝐴)(((Λ‘𝑛) − if(𝑛 ∈ ℙ, (log‘𝑛), 0)) / 𝑛) ≤ 2)

Theoremdchrisum0lem1a 25220 Lemma for dchrisum0lem1 25250. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jun-2016.)
(((𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑋))) → (𝑋 ≤ ((𝑋↑2) / 𝐷) ∧ (⌊‘((𝑋↑2) / 𝐷)) ∈ (ℤ‘(⌊‘𝑋))))

Theoremrpvmasumlem 25221* Lemma for rpvmasum 25260. Calculate the "trivial case" estimate Σ𝑛𝑥( 1 (𝑛)Λ(𝑛) / 𝑛) = log𝑥 + 𝑂(1), where 1 (𝑥) is the principal Dirichlet character. Equation 9.4.7 of [Shapiro], p. 376. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(( 1 ‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisumlema 25222* Lemma for dchrisum 25226. Lemma 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝑛 = 𝑥𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑀𝑛𝑛𝑥)) → 𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝐴) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · 𝐴))       (𝜑 → ((𝐼 ∈ ℝ+𝐼 / 𝑛𝐴 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐼 ∈ (𝑀[,)+∞) → 0 ≤ 𝐼 / 𝑛𝐴)))

Theoremdchrisumlem1 25223* Lemma for dchrisum 25226. Lemma 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝑛 = 𝑥𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑀𝑛𝑛𝑥)) → 𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝐴) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑢 ∈ (0..^𝑁)(abs‘Σ𝑛 ∈ (0..^𝑢)(𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛))) ≤ 𝑅)       ((𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℕ0) → (abs‘Σ𝑛 ∈ (0..^𝑈)(𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛))) ≤ 𝑅)

Theoremdchrisumlem2 25224* Lemma for dchrisum 25226. Lemma 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝑛 = 𝑥𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑀𝑛𝑛𝑥)) → 𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝐴) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑢 ∈ (0..^𝑁)(abs‘Σ𝑛 ∈ (0..^𝑢)(𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛))) ≤ 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑀𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ≤ (𝐼 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (ℤ𝐼))       (𝜑 → (abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘𝐽) − (seq1( + , 𝐹)‘𝐼))) ≤ ((2 · 𝑅) · 𝑈 / 𝑛𝐴))

Theoremdchrisumlem3 25225* Lemma for dchrisum 25226. Lemma 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝑛 = 𝑥𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑀𝑛𝑛𝑥)) → 𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝐴) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑢 ∈ (0..^𝑁)(abs‘Σ𝑛 ∈ (0..^𝑢)(𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛))) ≤ 𝑅)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑡𝑐 ∈ (0[,)+∞)(seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑥)) − 𝑡)) ≤ (𝑐 · 𝐵)))

Theoremdchrisum 25226* If 𝑛 ∈ [𝑀, +∞) ↦ 𝐴(𝑛) is a positive decreasing function approaching zero, then the infinite sum Σ𝑛, 𝑋(𝑛)𝐴(𝑛) is convergent, with the partial sum Σ𝑛𝑥, 𝑋(𝑛)𝐴(𝑛) within 𝑂(𝐴(𝑀)) of the limit 𝑇. Lemma 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝑛 = 𝑥𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝑀𝑛𝑛𝑥)) → 𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℝ+𝐴) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · 𝐴))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑡𝑐 ∈ (0[,)+∞)(seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑥)) − 𝑡)) ≤ (𝑐 · 𝐵)))

Theoremdchrmusumlema 25227* Lemma for dchrmusum 25258 and dchrisumn0 25255. Apply dchrisum 25226 for the function 1 / 𝑦. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑡𝑐 ∈ (0[,)+∞)(seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑡)) ≤ (𝑐 / 𝑦)))

Theoremdchrmusum2 25228* The sum of the Möbius function multiplied by a non-principal Dirichlet character, divided by 𝑛, is bounded, provided that 𝑇 ≠ 0. Lemma 9.4.2 of [Shapiro], p. 380. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumlem1 25229* An alternative expression for a Dirichlet-weighted von Mangoldt sum in terms of the Möbius function. Equation 9.4.11 of [Shapiro], p. 377. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) = Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝑑)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) · ((log‘𝑚) / 𝑚))))

Theoremdchrvmasum2lem 25230* Give an expression for log𝑥 remarkably similar to Σ𝑛𝑥(𝑋(𝑛)Λ(𝑛) / 𝑛) given in dchrvmasumlem1 25229. Part of Lemma 9.4.3 of [Shapiro], p. 380. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 1 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (log‘𝐴) = Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝑑)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) · ((log‘((𝐴 / 𝑑) / 𝑚)) / 𝑚))))

Theoremdchrvmasum2if 25231* Combine the results of dchrvmasumlem1 25229 and dchrvmasum2lem 25230 inside a conditional. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 1 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) + if(𝜓, (log‘𝐴), 0)) = Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝑑)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) · ((log‘if(𝜓, (𝐴 / 𝑑), 𝑚)) / 𝑚))))

Theoremdchrvmasumlem2 25232* Lemma for dchrvmasum 25259. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   ((𝜑𝑚 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐹 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑚 = (𝑥 / 𝑑) → 𝐹 = 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑚 ∈ (3[,)+∞)) → (abs‘(𝐹𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 · ((log‘𝑚) / 𝑚)))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚 ∈ (1[,)3)(abs‘(𝐹𝑇)) ≤ 𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((abs‘(𝐾𝑇)) / 𝑑)) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumlem3 25233* Lemma for dchrvmasum 25259. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   ((𝜑𝑚 ∈ ℝ+) → 𝐹 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑚 = (𝑥 / 𝑑) → 𝐹 = 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑚 ∈ (3[,)+∞)) → (abs‘(𝐹𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 · ((log‘𝑚) / 𝑚)))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑚 ∈ (1[,)3)(abs‘(𝐹𝑇)) ≤ 𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · (𝐾𝑇))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumlema 25234* Lemma for dchrvmasum 25259 and dchrvmasumif 25237. Apply dchrisum 25226 for the function log(𝑦) / 𝑦, which is decreasing above e (or above 3, the nearest integer bound). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) · ((log‘𝑎) / 𝑎)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑡𝑐 ∈ (0[,)+∞)(seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ (3[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑡)) ≤ (𝑐 · ((log‘𝑦) / 𝑦))))

Theoremdchrvmasumiflem1 25235* Lemma for dchrvmasumif 25237. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))    &   𝐾 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) · ((log‘𝑎) / 𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (3[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐾)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐸 · ((log‘𝑦) / 𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑑)) · ((μ‘𝑑) / 𝑑)) · (Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑑)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑘)) · ((log‘if(𝑆 = 0, (𝑥 / 𝑑), 𝑘)) / 𝑘)) − if(𝑆 = 0, 0, 𝑇)))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumiflem2 25236* Lemma for dchrvmasum 25259. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))    &   𝐾 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) · ((log‘𝑎) / 𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (3[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐾)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐸 · ((log‘𝑦) / 𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) + if(𝑆 = 0, (log‘𝑥), 0))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumif 25237* An asymptotic approximation for the sum of 𝑋(𝑛)Λ(𝑛) / 𝑛 conditional on the value of the infinite sum 𝑆. (We will later show that the case 𝑆 = 0 is impossible, and hence establish dchrvmasum 25259.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) + if(𝑆 = 0, (log‘𝑥), 0))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmaeq0 25238* The set 𝑊 is the collection of all non-principal Dirichlet characters such that the sum Σ𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑋(𝑛) / 𝑛 is equal to zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}       (𝜑 → (𝑋𝑊𝑆 = 0))

Theoremdchrisum0fval 25239* Value of the function 𝐹, the divisor sum of a Dirichlet character. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))       (𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (𝐹𝐴) = Σ𝑡 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝐴} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑡)))

Theoremdchrisum0fmul 25240* The function 𝐹, the divisor sum of a Dirichlet character, is a multiplicative function (but not completely multiplicative). Equation 9.4.27 of [Shapiro], p. 382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 gcd 𝐵) = 1)       (𝜑 → (𝐹‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((𝐹𝐴) · (𝐹𝐵)))

Theoremdchrisum0ff 25241* The function 𝐹 is a real function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)       (𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)

Theoremdchrisum0flblem1 25242* Lemma for dchrisum0flb 25244. Base case, prime power. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ ℙ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → if((√‘(𝑃𝐴)) ∈ ℕ, 1, 0) ≤ (𝐹‘(𝑃𝐴)))

Theoremdchrisum0flblem2 25243* Lemma for dchrisum0flb 25244. Induction over relatively prime factors, with the prime power case handled in dchrisum0flblem1 . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.) Replace reference to OLD theorem. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 8-Sep-2020.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ ℙ)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1..^𝐴)if((√‘𝑦) ∈ ℕ, 1, 0) ≤ (𝐹𝑦))       (𝜑 → if((√‘𝐴) ∈ ℕ, 1, 0) ≤ (𝐹𝐴))

Theoremdchrisum0flb 25244* The divisor sum of a real Dirichlet character, is lower bounded by zero everywhere and one at the squares. Equation 9.4.29 of [Shapiro], p. 382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → if((√‘𝐴) ∈ ℕ, 1, 0) ≤ (𝐹𝐴))

Theoremdchrisum0fno1 25245* The sum Σ𝑘𝑥, 𝐹(𝑥) / √𝑘 is divergent (i.e. not eventually bounded). Equation 9.4.30 of [Shapiro], p. 383. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐹 = (𝑏 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑣 ∈ {𝑞 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑞𝑏} (𝑋‘(𝐿𝑣)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝐹𝑘) / (√‘𝑘))) ∈ 𝑂(1))        ¬ 𝜑

Theoremrpvmasum2 25246* A partial result along the lines of rpvmasum 25260. The sum of the von Mangoldt function over those integers 𝑛𝐴 (mod 𝑁) is asymptotic to (1 − 𝑀)(log𝑥 / ϕ(𝑥)) + 𝑂(1), where 𝑀 is the number of non-principal Dirichlet characters with Σ𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑋(𝑛) / 𝑛 = 0. Our goal is to show this set is empty. Equation 9.4.3 of [Shapiro], p. 375. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   𝑇 = (𝐿 “ {𝐴})    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝑊) → 𝐴 = (1r𝑍))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (((ϕ‘𝑁) · Σ𝑛 ∈ ((1...(⌊‘𝑥)) ∩ 𝑇)((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) − ((log‘𝑥) · (1 − (#‘𝑊))))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisum0re 25247* Suppose 𝑋 is a non-principal Dirichlet character with Σ𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑋(𝑛) / 𝑛 = 0. Then 𝑋 is a real character. Part of Lemma 9.4.4 of [Shapiro], p. 382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)       (𝜑𝑋:(Base‘𝑍)⟶ℝ)

Theoremdchrisum0lema 25248* Lemma for dchrisum0 25254. Apply dchrisum 25226 for the function 1 / √𝑦. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑡𝑐 ∈ (0[,)+∞)(seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑡)) ≤ (𝑐 / (√‘𝑦))))

Theoremdchrisum0lem1b 25249* Lemma for dchrisum0lem1 25250. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jun-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / (√‘𝑦)))       (((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ 𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))) → (abs‘Σ𝑚 ∈ (((⌊‘𝑥) + 1)...(⌊‘((𝑥↑2) / 𝑑)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) / (√‘𝑚))) ≤ ((2 · 𝐶) / (√‘𝑥)))

Theoremdchrisum0lem1 25250* Lemma for dchrisum0 25254. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Jun-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / (√‘𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑚 ∈ (((⌊‘𝑥) + 1)...(⌊‘(𝑥↑2)))Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘((𝑥↑2) / 𝑚)))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) / (√‘𝑚)) / (√‘𝑑))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisum0lem2a 25251* Lemma for dchrisum0 25254. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / (√‘𝑦)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))(1 / (√‘𝑑)) − (2 · (√‘𝑦))))    &   (𝜑𝐻𝑟 𝑈)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) / (√‘𝑚)) · (𝐻‘((𝑥↑2) / 𝑚)))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisum0lem2 25252* Lemma for dchrisum0 25254. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / (√‘𝑦)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))(1 / (√‘𝑑)) − (2 · (√‘𝑦))))    &   (𝜑𝐻𝑟 𝑈)    &   𝐾 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐾)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐸 / 𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘((𝑥↑2) / 𝑚)))(((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) / (√‘𝑚)) / (√‘𝑑))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisum0lem3 25253* Lemma for dchrisum0 25254. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / (√‘𝑎)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑆)) ≤ (𝐶 / (√‘𝑦)))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥↑2)))Σ𝑑 ∈ (1...(⌊‘((𝑥↑2) / 𝑚)))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑚)) / (√‘(𝑚 · 𝑑)))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrisum0 25254* The sum Σ𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑋(𝑛) / 𝑛 is nonzero for all non-principal Dirichlet characters (i.e. the assumption 𝑋𝑊 is contradictory). This is the key result that allows us to eliminate the conditionals from dchrmusum2 25228 and dchrvmasumif 25237. Lemma 9.4.4 of [Shapiro], p. 382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑦 ∈ (𝐷 ∖ { 1 }) ∣ Σ𝑚 ∈ ℕ ((𝑦‘(𝐿𝑚)) / 𝑚) = 0}    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)        ¬ 𝜑

Theoremdchrisumn0 25255* The sum Σ𝑛 ∈ ℕ, 𝑋(𝑛) / 𝑛 is nonzero for all non-principal Dirichlet characters (i.e. the assumption 𝑋𝑊 is contradictory). This is the key result that allows us to eliminate the conditionals from dchrmusum2 25228 and dchrvmasumif 25237. Lemma 9.4.4 of [Shapiro], p. 382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))       (𝜑𝑇 ≠ 0)

Theoremdchrmusumlem 25256* The sum of the Möbius function multiplied by a non-principal Dirichlet character, divided by 𝑛, is bounded. Equation 9.4.16 of [Shapiro], p. 379. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasumlem 25257* The sum of the Möbius function multiplied by a non-principal Dirichlet character, divided by 𝑛, is bounded. Equation 9.4.16 of [Shapiro], p. 379. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )    &   𝐹 = (𝑎 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑎)) / 𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑 → seq1( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((seq1( + , 𝐹)‘(⌊‘𝑦)) − 𝑇)) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrmusum 25258* The sum of the Möbius function multiplied by a non-principal Dirichlet character, divided by 𝑛, is bounded. Equation 9.4.16 of [Shapiro], p. 379. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdchrvmasum 25259* The sum of the von Mangoldt function multiplied by a non-principal Dirichlet character, divided by 𝑛, is bounded. Equation 9.4.8 of [Shapiro], p. 376. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐺 = (DChr‘𝑁)    &   𝐷 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    1 = (0g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋1 )       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑋‘(𝐿𝑛)) · ((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremrpvmasum 25260* The sum of the von Mangoldt function over those integers 𝑛𝐴 (mod 𝑁) is asymptotic to log𝑥 / ϕ(𝑥) + 𝑂(1). Equation 9.4.3 of [Shapiro], p. 375. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-May-2016.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 26-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   𝑇 = (𝐿 “ {𝐴})       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (((ϕ‘𝑁) · Σ𝑛 ∈ ((1...(⌊‘𝑥)) ∩ 𝑇)((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremrplogsum 25261* The sum of log𝑝 / 𝑝 over the primes 𝑝𝐴 (mod 𝑁) is asymptotic to log𝑥 / ϕ(𝑥) + 𝑂(1). Equation 9.4.3 of [Shapiro], p. 375. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Apr-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   𝑇 = (𝐿 “ {𝐴})       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (((ϕ‘𝑁) · Σ𝑝 ∈ ((1...(⌊‘𝑥)) ∩ (ℙ ∩ 𝑇))((log‘𝑝) / 𝑝)) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremdirith2 25262 Dirichlet's theorem: there are infinitely many primes in any arithmetic progression coprime to 𝑁. Theorem 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 375. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Apr-2016.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 26-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑁)    &   𝐿 = (ℤRHom‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝑈 = (Unit‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑈)    &   𝑇 = (𝐿 “ {𝐴})       (𝜑 → (ℙ ∩ 𝑇) ≈ ℕ)

Theoremdirith 25263* Dirichlet's theorem: there are infinitely many primes in any arithmetic progression coprime to 𝑁. Theorem 9.4.1 of [Shapiro], p. 375. See http://metamath-blog.blogspot.com/2016/05/dirichlets-theorem.html for an informal exposition. This is Metamath 100 proof #48. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2016.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ (𝐴 gcd 𝑁) = 1) → {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑁 ∥ (𝑝𝐴)} ≈ ℕ)

14.4.13  The Prime Number Theorem

Theoremmudivsum 25264* Asymptotic formula for Σ𝑛𝑥, μ(𝑛) / 𝑛 = 𝑂(1). Equation 10.2.1 of [Shapiro], p. 405. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremmulogsumlem 25265* Lemma for mulogsum 25266. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · (Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))(1 / 𝑚) − (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremmulogsum 25266* Asymptotic formula for Σ𝑛𝑥, (μ(𝑛) / 𝑛)log(𝑥 / 𝑛) = 𝑂(1). Equation 10.2.6 of [Shapiro], p. 406. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremlogdivsum 25267* Asymptotic analysis of Σ𝑛𝑥, log𝑛 / 𝑛 = (log𝑥)↑2 / 2 + 𝐿 + 𝑂(log𝑥 / 𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((log‘𝑖) / 𝑖) − (((log‘𝑦)↑2) / 2)))       (𝐹:ℝ+⟶ℝ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝𝑟 ∧ ((𝐹𝑟 𝐿𝐴 ∈ ℝ+ ∧ e ≤ 𝐴) → (abs‘((𝐹𝐴) − 𝐿)) ≤ ((log‘𝐴) / 𝐴)))

Theoremmulog2sumlem1 25268* Asymptotic formula for Σ𝑛𝑥, log(𝑥 / 𝑛) / 𝑛 = (1 / 2)log↑2(𝑥) + γ · log𝑥𝐿 + 𝑂(log𝑥 / 𝑥), with explicit constants. Equation 10.2.7 of [Shapiro], p. 407. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((log‘𝑖) / 𝑖) − (((log‘𝑦)↑2) / 2)))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑟 𝐿)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → e ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (abs‘(Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))((log‘(𝐴 / 𝑚)) / 𝑚) − ((((log‘𝐴)↑2) / 2) + ((γ · (log‘𝐴)) − 𝐿)))) ≤ (2 · ((log‘𝐴) / 𝐴)))

Theoremmulog2sumlem2 25269* Lemma for mulog2sum 25271. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-May-2016.)
𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((log‘𝑖) / 𝑖) − (((log‘𝑦)↑2) / 2)))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑟 𝐿)    &   𝑇 = ((((log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))↑2) / 2) + ((γ · (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))) − 𝐿))    &   𝑅 = (((1 / 2) + (γ + (abs‘𝐿))) + Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...2)((log‘(e / 𝑚)) / 𝑚))       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · 𝑇) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremmulog2sumlem3 25270* Lemma for mulog2sum 25271. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-May-2016.)
𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((log‘𝑖) / 𝑖) − (((log‘𝑦)↑2) / 2)))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑟 𝐿)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · ((log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))↑2)) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremmulog2sum 25271* Asymptotic formula for Σ𝑛𝑥, (μ(𝑛) / 𝑛)log↑2(𝑥 / 𝑛) = 2log𝑥 + 𝑂(1). Equation 10.2.8 of [Shapiro], p. 407. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((μ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · ((log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))↑2)) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremvmalogdivsum2 25272* The sum Σ𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑛)log(𝑥 / 𝑛) / 𝑛 is asymptotic to log↑2(𝑥) / 2 + 𝑂(log𝑥). Exercise 9.1.7 of [Shapiro], p. 336. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))) / (log‘𝑥)) − ((log‘𝑥) / 2))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremvmalogdivsum 25273* The sum Σ𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑛)log𝑛 / 𝑛 is asymptotic to log↑2(𝑥) / 2 + 𝑂(log𝑥). Exercise 9.1.7 of [Shapiro], p. 336. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · (log‘𝑛)) / (log‘𝑥)) − ((log‘𝑥) / 2))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘(Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((Λ‘𝑖) / 𝑖) − (log‘𝑦))) ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))((Λ‘𝑚) / 𝑚)) / (log‘𝑥)) − ((log‘𝑥) / 2))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theorem2vmadivsum 25275* The sum Σ𝑚𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑚)Λ(𝑛) / 𝑚𝑛 is asymptotic to log↑2(𝑥) / 2 + 𝑂(log𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) / 𝑛) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))((Λ‘𝑚) / 𝑚)) / (log‘𝑥)) − ((log‘𝑥) / 2))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremlogsqvma 25276* A formula for log↑2(𝑁) in terms of the primes. Equation 10.4.6 of [Shapiro], p. 418. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-May-2016.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑑 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} (Σ𝑢 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑑} ((Λ‘𝑢) · (Λ‘(𝑑 / 𝑢))) + ((Λ‘𝑑) · (log‘𝑑))) = ((log‘𝑁)↑2))

Theoremlogsqvma2 25277* The Möbius inverse of logsqvma 25276. Equation 10.4.8 of [Shapiro], p. 418. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-May-2016.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑑 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ((μ‘𝑑) · ((log‘(𝑁 / 𝑑))↑2)) = (Σ𝑑 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ((Λ‘𝑑) · (Λ‘(𝑁 / 𝑑))) + ((Λ‘𝑁) · (log‘𝑁))))

Theoremlog2sumbnd 25278* Bound on the difference between Σ𝑛𝐴, log↑2(𝑛) and the equivalent integral. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-May-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ+ ∧ 1 ≤ 𝐴) → (abs‘(Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))((log‘𝑛)↑2) − (𝐴 · (((log‘𝐴)↑2) + (2 − (2 · (log‘𝐴))))))) ≤ (((log‘𝐴)↑2) + 2))

Theoremselberglem1 25279* Lemma for selberg 25282. Estimation of the asymptotic part of selberglem3 25281. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-May-2016.)
𝑇 = ((((log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))↑2) + (2 − (2 · (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))))) / 𝑛)       (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((μ‘𝑛) · 𝑇) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberglem2 25280* Lemma for selberg 25282. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-May-2016.)
𝑇 = ((((log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))↑2) + (2 − (2 · (log‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))))) / 𝑛)       (𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))((μ‘𝑛) · ((log‘𝑚)↑2)) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberglem3 25281* Lemma for selberg 25282. Estimation of the left-hand side of logsqvma2 25277. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))Σ𝑑 ∈ {𝑦 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑦𝑛} ((μ‘𝑑) · ((log‘(𝑛 / 𝑑))↑2)) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberg 25282* Selberg's symmetry formula. The statement has many forms, and this one is equivalent to the statement that Σ𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑛)log𝑛 + Σ𝑚 · 𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑚)Λ(𝑛) = 2𝑥log𝑥 + 𝑂(𝑥). Equation 10.4.10 of [Shapiro], p. 419. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · ((log‘𝑛) + (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselbergb 25283* Convert eventual boundedness in selberg 25282 to boundedness on [1, +∞). (We have to bound away from zero because the log terms diverge at zero.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · ((log‘𝑛) + (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ≤ 𝑐

Theoremselberg2lem 25284* Lemma for selberg2 25285. Equation 10.4.12 of [Shapiro], p. 420. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · (log‘𝑛)) − ((ψ‘𝑥) · (log‘𝑥))) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberg2 25285* Selberg's symmetry formula, using the second Chebyshev function. Equation 10.4.14 of [Shapiro], p. 420. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (((((ψ‘𝑥) · (log‘𝑥)) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberg2b 25286* Convert eventual boundedness in selberg2 25285 to boundedness on any interval [𝐴, +∞). (We have to bound away from zero because the log terms diverge at zero.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘(((((ψ‘𝑥) · (log‘𝑥)) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ≤ 𝑐

Theoremchpdifbndlem1 25287* Lemma for chpdifbnd 25289. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 1 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘(((((ψ‘𝑧) · (log‘𝑧)) + Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑧))((Λ‘𝑚) · (ψ‘(𝑧 / 𝑚)))) / 𝑧) − (2 · (log‘𝑧)))) ≤ 𝐵)    &   𝐶 = ((𝐵 · (𝐴 + 1)) + ((2 · 𝐴) · (log‘𝐴)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (1(,)+∞))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋[,](𝐴 · 𝑋)))       (𝜑 → ((ψ‘𝑌) − (ψ‘𝑋)) ≤ ((2 · (𝑌𝑋)) + (𝐶 · (𝑋 / (log‘𝑋)))))

Theoremchpdifbndlem2 25288* Lemma for chpdifbnd 25289. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 1 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘(((((ψ‘𝑧) · (log‘𝑧)) + Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑧))((Λ‘𝑚) · (ψ‘(𝑧 / 𝑚)))) / 𝑧) − (2 · (log‘𝑧)))) ≤ 𝐵)    &   𝐶 = ((𝐵 · (𝐴 + 1)) + ((2 · 𝐴) · (log‘𝐴)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝑥[,](𝐴 · 𝑥))((ψ‘𝑦) − (ψ‘𝑥)) ≤ ((2 · (𝑦𝑥)) + (𝑐 · (𝑥 / (log‘𝑥)))))

Theoremchpdifbnd 25289* A bound on the difference of nearby ψ values. Theorem 10.5.2 of [Shapiro], p. 427. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 1 ≤ 𝐴) → ∃𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝑥[,](𝐴 · 𝑥))((ψ‘𝑦) − (ψ‘𝑥)) ≤ ((2 · (𝑦𝑥)) + (𝑐 · (𝑥 / (log‘𝑥)))))

Theoremlogdivbnd 25290* A bound on a sum of logs, used in pntlemk 25340. This is not as precise as logdivsum 25267 in its asymptotic behavior, but it is valid for all 𝑁 and does not require a limit value. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Apr-2016.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁)((log‘𝑛) / 𝑛) ≤ ((((log‘𝑁) + 1)↑2) / 2))

Theoremselberg3lem1 25291* Introduce a log weighting on the summands of Σ𝑚 · 𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑚)Λ(𝑛), the core of selberg2 25285 (written here as Σ𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑛)ψ(𝑥 / 𝑛)). Equation 10.4.21 of [Shapiro], p. 422. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((Λ‘𝑘) · (log‘𝑘)) − ((ψ‘𝑦) · (log‘𝑦))) / 𝑦)) ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((((2 / (log‘𝑥)) · Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))) · (log‘𝑛))) − Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremselberg3lem2 25292* Lemma for selberg3 25293. Equation 10.4.21 of [Shapiro], p. 422. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((((2 / (log‘𝑥)) · Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))) · (log‘𝑛))) − Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberg3 25293* Introduce a log weighting on the summands of Σ𝑚 · 𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑚)Λ(𝑛), the core of selberg2 25285 (written here as Σ𝑛𝑥, Λ(𝑛)ψ(𝑥 / 𝑛)). Equation 10.6.7 of [Shapiro], p. 422. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ (((((ψ‘𝑥) · (log‘𝑥)) + ((2 / (log‘𝑥)) · Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(((Λ‘𝑛) · (ψ‘(𝑥 / 𝑛))) · (log‘𝑛)))) / 𝑥) − (2 · (log‘𝑥)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theoremselberg4lem1 25294* Lemma for selberg4 25295. Equation 10.4.20 of [Shapiro], p. 422. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (1[,)+∞)(abs‘((Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑦))((Λ‘𝑖) · ((log‘𝑖) + (ψ‘(𝑦 / 𝑖)))) / 𝑦) − (2 · (log‘𝑦)))) ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))((Λ‘𝑚) · ((log‘𝑚) + (ψ‘((𝑥 / 𝑛) / 𝑚))))) / (𝑥 · (log‘𝑥))) − (log‘𝑥))) ∈ 𝑂(1))

Theoremselberg4 25295* The Selberg symmetry formula for products of three primes, instead of two. The sum here can also be written in the symmetric form Σ𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑥, Λ(𝑖)Λ(𝑗)Λ(𝑘); we eliminate one of the nested sums by using the definition of ψ(𝑥) = Σ𝑘𝑥, Λ(𝑘). This statement can thus equivalently be written ψ(𝑥)log↑2(𝑥) = 𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑥, Λ(𝑖)Λ(𝑗)Λ(𝑘) + 𝑂(𝑥log𝑥). Equation 10.4.23 of [Shapiro], p. 422. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ (1(,)+∞) ↦ ((((ψ‘𝑥) · (log‘𝑥)) − ((2 / (log‘𝑥)) · Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((Λ‘𝑛) · Σ𝑚 ∈ (1...(⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑛)))((Λ‘𝑚) · (ψ‘((𝑥 / 𝑛) / 𝑚)))))) / 𝑥)) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theorempntrval 25296* Define the residual of the second Chebyshev function. The goal is to have 𝑅(𝑥) ∈ 𝑜(𝑥), or 𝑅(𝑥) / 𝑥𝑟 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
𝑅 = (𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑎) − 𝑎))       (𝐴 ∈ ℝ+ → (𝑅𝐴) = ((ψ‘𝐴) − 𝐴))

Theorempntrf 25297 Functionality of the residual. Lemma for pnt 25348. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
𝑅 = (𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑎) − 𝑎))       𝑅:ℝ+⟶ℝ

Theorempntrmax 25298* There is a bound on the residual valid for all 𝑥. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2016.)
𝑅 = (𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑎) − 𝑎))       𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ ℝ+ (abs‘((𝑅𝑥) / 𝑥)) ≤ 𝑐

Theorempntrsumo1 25299* A bound on a sum over 𝑅. Equation 10.1.16 of [Shapiro], p. 403. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
𝑅 = (𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑎) − 𝑎))       (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))((𝑅𝑛) / (𝑛 · (𝑛 + 1)))) ∈ 𝑂(1)

Theorempntrsumbnd 25300* A bound on a sum over 𝑅. Equation 10.1.16 of [Shapiro], p. 403. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-May-2016.)
𝑅 = (𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((ψ‘𝑎) − 𝑎))       𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑚 ∈ ℤ (abs‘Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑚)((𝑅𝑛) / (𝑛 · (𝑛 + 1)))) ≤ 𝑐

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78 7701-7800 79 7801-7900 80 7901-8000 81 8001-8100 82 8101-8200 83 8201-8300 84 8301-8400 85 8401-8500 86 8501-8600 87 8601-8700 88 8701-8800 89 8801-8900 90 8901-9000 91 9001-9100 92 9101-9200 93 9201-9300 94 9301-9400 95 9401-9500 96 9501-9600 97 9601-9700 98 9701-9800 99 9801-9900 100 9901-10000 101 10001-10100 102 10101-10200 103 10201-10300 104 10301-10400 105 10401-10500 106 10501-10600 107 10601-10700 108 10701-10800 109 10801-10900 110 10901-11000 111 11001-11100 112 11101-11200 113 11201-11300 114 11301-11400 115 11401-11500 116 11501-11600 117 11601-11700 118 11701-11800 119 11801-11900 120 11901-12000 121 12001-12100 122 12101-12200 123 12201-12300 124 12301-12400 125 12401-12500 126 12501-12600 127 12601-12700 128 12701-12800 129 12801-12900 130 12901-13000 131 13001-13100 132 13101-13200 133 13201-13300 134 13301-13400 135 13401-13500 136 13501-13600 137 13601-13700 138 13701-13800 139 13801-13900 140 13901-14000 141 14001-14100 142 14101-14200 143 14201-14300 144 14301-14400 145 14401-14500 146 14501-14600 147 14601-14700 148 14701-14800 149 14801-14900 150 14901-15000 151 15001-15100 152 15101-15200 153 15201-15300 154 15301-15400 155 15401-15500 156 15501-15600 157 15601-15700 158 15701-15800 159 15801-15900 160 15901-16000 161 16001-16100 162 16101-16200 163 16201-16300 164 16301-16400 165 16401-16500 166 16501-16600 167 16601-16700 168 16701-16800 169 16801-16900 170 16901-17000 171 17001-17100 172 17101-17200 173 17201-17300 174 17301-17400 175 17401-17500 176 17501-17600 177 17601-17700 178 17701-17800 179 17801-17900 180 17901-18000 181 18001-18100 182 18101-18200 183 18201-18300 184 18301-18400 185 18401-18500 186 18501-18600 187 18601-18700 188 18701-18800 189 18801-18900 190 18901-19000 191 19001-19100 192 19101-19200 193 19201-19300 194 19301-19400 195 19401-19500 196 19501-19600 197 19601-19700 198 19701-19800 199 19801-19900 200 19901-20000 201 20001-20100 202 20101-20200 203 20201-20300 204 20301-20400 205 20401-20500 206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42879
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