Home Metamath Proof ExplorerTheorem List (p. 128 of 429) < Previous  Next > Bad symbols? Try the GIF version. Mirrors  >  Metamath Home Page  >  MPE Home Page  >  Theorem List Contents  >  Recent Proofs       This page: Page List

 Color key: Metamath Proof Explorer (1-27903) Hilbert Space Explorer (27904-29428) Users' Mathboxes (29429-42879)

Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 12701-12800   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremfznnfl 12701 Finite set of sequential integers starting at 1 and ending at a real number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2016.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℝ → (𝐾 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑁)) ↔ (𝐾 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐾𝑁)))

Theoremuzsup 12702 An upper set of integers is unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       (𝑀 ∈ ℤ → sup(𝑍, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)

Theoremioopnfsup 12703 An upper set of reals is unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ*𝐴 ≠ +∞) → sup((𝐴(,)+∞), ℝ*, < ) = +∞)

Theoremicopnfsup 12704 An upper set of reals is unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ*𝐴 ≠ +∞) → sup((𝐴[,)+∞), ℝ*, < ) = +∞)

Theoremrpsup 12705 The positive reals are unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
sup(ℝ+, ℝ*, < ) = +∞

Theoremresup 12706 The real numbers are unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
sup(ℝ, ℝ*, < ) = +∞

Theoremxrsup 12707 The extended real numbers are unbounded above. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.)
sup(ℝ*, ℝ*, < ) = +∞

5.6.2  The modulo (remainder) operation

Syntaxcmo 12708 Extend class notation with the modulo operation.
class mod

Definitiondf-mod 12709* Define the modulo (remainder) operation. See modval 12710 for its value. For example, (5 mod 3) = 2 and (-7 mod 2) = 1 (ex-mod 27436). (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.)
mod = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ, 𝑦 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ (𝑥 − (𝑦 · (⌊‘(𝑥 / 𝑦)))))

Theoremmodval 12710 The value of the modulo operation. The modulo congruence notation of number theory, 𝐽𝐾 (modulo 𝑁), can be expressed in our notation as (𝐽 mod 𝑁) = (𝐾 mod 𝑁). Definition 1 in Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. I (1972), p. 38. Knuth uses "mod" for the operation and "modulo" for the congruence. Unlike Knuth, we restrict the second argument to positive reals to simplify certain theorems. (This also gives us future flexibility to extend it to any one of several different conventions for a zero or negative second argument, should there be an advantage in doing so.) (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) = (𝐴 − (𝐵 · (⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)))))

Theoremmodvalr 12711 The value of the modulo operation (multiplication in reversed order). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 14-Apr-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) = (𝐴 − ((⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) · 𝐵)))

Theoremmodcl 12712 Closure law for the modulo operation. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremflpmodeq 12713 Partition of a division into its integer part and the remainder. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 14-Apr-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (((⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) · 𝐵) + (𝐴 mod 𝐵)) = 𝐴)

Theoremmodcld 12714 Closure law for the modulo operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremmod0 12715 𝐴 mod 𝐵 is zero iff 𝐴 is evenly divisible by 𝐵. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Fan Zheng, 7-Jun-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝐵) = 0 ↔ (𝐴 / 𝐵) ∈ ℤ))

Theoremmulmod0 12716 The product of an integer and a positive real number is 0 modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.) (Revised by AV, 5-Jul-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 · 𝑀) mod 𝑀) = 0)

Theoremnegmod0 12717 𝐴 is divisible by 𝐵 iff its negative is. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 2-Sep-2009.) (Proof shortened by Fan Zheng, 7-Jun-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝐵) = 0 ↔ (-𝐴 mod 𝐵) = 0))

Theoremmodge0 12718 The modulo operation is nonnegative. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → 0 ≤ (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremmodlt 12719 The modulo operation is less than its second argument. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) < 𝐵)

Theoremmodelico 12720 Modular reduction produces a half-open interval. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 12-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ (0[,)𝐵))

Theoremmoddiffl 12721 The modulo operation differs from 𝐴 by an integer multiple of 𝐵. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Sep-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 − (𝐴 mod 𝐵)) / 𝐵) = (⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)))

Theoremmoddifz 12722 The modulo operation differs from 𝐴 by an integer multiple of 𝐵. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 − (𝐴 mod 𝐵)) / 𝐵) ∈ ℤ)

Theoremmodfrac 12723 The fractional part of a number is the number modulo 1. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2008.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (𝐴 mod 1) = (𝐴 − (⌊‘𝐴)))

Theoremflmod 12724 The floor function expressed in terms of the modulo operation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2008.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (⌊‘𝐴) = (𝐴 − (𝐴 mod 1)))

Theoremintfrac 12725 Break a number into its integer part and its fractional part. (Contributed by NM, 31-Dec-2008.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 𝐴 = ((⌊‘𝐴) + (𝐴 mod 1)))

Theoremzmod10 12726 An integer modulo 1 is 0. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Jun-2011.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℤ → (𝑁 mod 1) = 0)

Theoremzmod1congr 12727 Two arbitrary integers are congruent modulo 1, see example 4 in [ApostolNT] p. 107. (Contributed by AV, 21-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → (𝐴 mod 1) = (𝐵 mod 1))

Theoremmodmulnn 12728 Move a positive integer in and out of a floor in the first argument of a modulo operation. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2009.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℕ) → ((𝑁 · (⌊‘𝐴)) mod (𝑁 · 𝑀)) ≤ ((⌊‘(𝑁 · 𝐴)) mod (𝑁 · 𝑀)))

Theoremmodvalp1 12729 The value of the modulo operation (expressed with sum of denominator and nominator). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 14-Apr-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 + 𝐵) − (((⌊‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) + 1) · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremzmodcl 12730 Closure law for the modulo operation restricted to integers. (Contributed by NM, 27-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremzmodcld 12731 Closure law for the modulo operation restricted to integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremzmodfz 12732 An integer mod 𝐵 lies in the first 𝐵 nonnegative integers. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 17-Jun-2010.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ (0...(𝐵 − 1)))

Theoremzmodfzo 12733 An integer mod 𝐵 lies in the first 𝐵 nonnegative integers. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 6-Sep-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ (0..^𝐵))

Theoremzmodfzp1 12734 An integer mod 𝐵 lies in the first 𝐵 + 1 nonnegative integers. (Contributed by AV, 27-Oct-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ∈ (0...𝐵))

Theoremmodid 12735 Identity law for modulo. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2008.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (0 ≤ 𝐴𝐴 < 𝐵)) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) = 𝐴)

Theoremmodid0 12736 A positive real number modulo itself is 0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-May-2018.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℝ+ → (𝑁 mod 𝑁) = 0)

Theoremmodid2 12737 Identity law for modulo. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝐵) = 𝐴 ↔ (0 ≤ 𝐴𝐴 < 𝐵)))

Theoremzmodid2 12738 Identity law for modulo restricted to integers. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Jun-2011.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ((𝑀 mod 𝑁) = 𝑀𝑀 ∈ (0...(𝑁 − 1))))

Theoremzmodidfzo 12739 Identity law for modulo restricted to integers. (Contributed by AV, 27-Oct-2018.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ((𝑀 mod 𝑁) = 𝑀𝑀 ∈ (0..^𝑁)))

Theoremzmodidfzoimp 12740 Identity law for modulo restricted to integers. (Contributed by AV, 27-Oct-2018.)
(𝑀 ∈ (0..^𝑁) → (𝑀 mod 𝑁) = 𝑀)

Theorem0mod 12741 Special case: 0 modulo a positive real number is 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Feb-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℝ+ → (0 mod 𝑁) = 0)

Theorem1mod 12742 Special case: 1 modulo a real number greater than 1 is 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Feb-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℝ ∧ 1 < 𝑁) → (1 mod 𝑁) = 1)

Theoremmodabs 12743 Absorption law for modulo. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2008.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+𝐶 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ 𝐵𝐶) → ((𝐴 mod 𝐵) mod 𝐶) = (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremmodabs2 12744 Absorption law for modulo. (Contributed by NM, 29-Dec-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝐵) mod 𝐵) = (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremmodcyc 12745 The modulo operation is periodic. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+𝑁 ∈ ℤ) → ((𝐴 + (𝑁 · 𝐵)) mod 𝐵) = (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremmodcyc2 12746 The modulo operation is periodic. (Contributed by NM, 12-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+𝑁 ∈ ℤ) → ((𝐴 − (𝐵 · 𝑁)) mod 𝐵) = (𝐴 mod 𝐵))

Theoremmodadd1 12747 Addition property of the modulo operation. (Contributed by NM, 12-Nov-2008.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝐴 mod 𝐷) = (𝐵 mod 𝐷)) → ((𝐴 + 𝐶) mod 𝐷) = ((𝐵 + 𝐶) mod 𝐷))

Theoremmodaddabs 12748 Absorption law for modulo. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Jun-2011.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℝ+) → (((𝐴 mod 𝐶) + (𝐵 mod 𝐶)) mod 𝐶) = ((𝐴 + 𝐵) mod 𝐶))

Theoremmodaddmod 12749 The sum of a real number modulo a positive real number and another real number equals the sum of the two real numbers modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 13-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → (((𝐴 mod 𝑀) + 𝐵) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴 + 𝐵) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmuladdmodid 12750 The sum of a positive real number less than an upper bound and the product of an integer and the upper bound is the positive real number modulo the upper bound. (Contributed by AV, 5-Jul-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 ∈ (0[,)𝑀)) → (((𝑁 · 𝑀) + 𝐴) mod 𝑀) = 𝐴)

Theoremmulp1mod1 12751 The product of an integer and an integer greater than 1 increased by 1 is 1 modulo the integer greater than 1. (Contributed by AV, 15-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (((𝑁 · 𝐴) + 1) mod 𝑁) = 1)

Theoremmodmuladd 12752* Decomposition of an integer into a multiple of a modulus and a remainder. (Contributed by AV, 14-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (0[,)𝑀) ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑀) = 𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ 𝐴 = ((𝑘 · 𝑀) + 𝐵)))

Theoremmodmuladdim 12753* Implication of a decomposition of an integer into a multiple of a modulus and a remainder. (Contributed by AV, 14-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑀) = 𝐵 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ 𝐴 = ((𝑘 · 𝑀) + 𝐵)))

Theoremmodmuladdnn0 12754* Implication of a decomposition of a nonnegative integer into a multiple of a modulus and a remainder. (Contributed by AV, 14-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑀) = 𝐵 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 𝐴 = ((𝑘 · 𝑀) + 𝐵)))

Theoremnegmod 12755 The negation of a number modulo a positive number is equal to the difference of the modulus and the number modulo the modulus. (Contributed by AV, 5-Jul-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℝ+) → (-𝐴 mod 𝑁) = ((𝑁𝐴) mod 𝑁))

Theoremm1modnnsub1 12756 Minus one modulo a positive integer is equal to the integer minus one. (Contributed by AV, 14-Jul-2021.)
(𝑀 ∈ ℕ → (-1 mod 𝑀) = (𝑀 − 1))

Theoremm1modge3gt1 12757 Minus one modulo an integer greater than two is greater than one. (Contributed by AV, 14-Jul-2021.)
(𝑀 ∈ (ℤ‘3) → 1 < (-1 mod 𝑀))

Theoremaddmodid 12758 The sum of a positive integer and a nonnegative integer less than the positive integer is equal to the nonnegative integer modulo the positive integer. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Oct-2018.) (Proof shortened by AV, 5-Jul-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 < 𝑀) → ((𝑀 + 𝐴) mod 𝑀) = 𝐴)

Theoremaddmodidr 12759 The sum of a positive integer and a nonnegative integer less than the positive integer is equal to the nonnegative integer modulo the positive integer. (Contributed by AV, 19-Mar-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 < 𝑀) → ((𝐴 + 𝑀) mod 𝑀) = 𝐴)

Theoremmodadd2mod 12760 The sum of a real number modulo a positive real number and another real number equals the sum of the two real numbers modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐵 + (𝐴 mod 𝑀)) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐵 + 𝐴) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmodm1p1mod0 12761 If an real number modulo a positive real number equals the positive real number decreased by 1, the real number increased by 1 modulo the positive real number equals 0. (Contributed by AV, 2-Nov-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 mod 𝑀) = (𝑀 − 1) → ((𝐴 + 1) mod 𝑀) = 0))

Theoremmodltm1p1mod 12762 If a real number modulo a positive real number is less than the positive real number decreased by 1, the real number increased by 1 modulo the positive real number equals the real number modulo the positive real number increased by 1. (Contributed by AV, 2-Nov-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+ ∧ (𝐴 mod 𝑀) < (𝑀 − 1)) → ((𝐴 + 1) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴 mod 𝑀) + 1))

Theoremmodmul1 12763 Multiplication property of the modulo operation. Note that the multiplier 𝐶 must be an integer. (Contributed by NM, 12-Nov-2008.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝐴 mod 𝐷) = (𝐵 mod 𝐷)) → ((𝐴 · 𝐶) mod 𝐷) = ((𝐵 · 𝐶) mod 𝐷))

Theoremmodmul12d 12764 Multiplication property of the modulo operation, see theorem 5.2(b) in [ApostolNT] p. 107. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐸) = (𝐵 mod 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 mod 𝐸) = (𝐷 mod 𝐸))       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 · 𝐶) mod 𝐸) = ((𝐵 · 𝐷) mod 𝐸))

Theoremmodnegd 12765 Negation property of the modulo operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐶) = (𝐵 mod 𝐶))       (𝜑 → (-𝐴 mod 𝐶) = (-𝐵 mod 𝐶))

Theoremmodadd12d 12766 Additive property of the modulo operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐸) = (𝐵 mod 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 mod 𝐸) = (𝐷 mod 𝐸))       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 + 𝐶) mod 𝐸) = ((𝐵 + 𝐷) mod 𝐸))

Theoremmodsub12d 12767 Subtraction property of the modulo operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 mod 𝐸) = (𝐵 mod 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 mod 𝐸) = (𝐷 mod 𝐸))       (𝜑 → ((𝐴𝐶) mod 𝐸) = ((𝐵𝐷) mod 𝐸))

Theoremmodsubmod 12768 The difference of a real number modulo a positive real number and another real number equals the difference of the two real numbers modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → (((𝐴 mod 𝑀) − 𝐵) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴𝐵) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmodsubmodmod 12769 The difference of a real number modulo a positive real number and another real number modulo this positive real number equals the difference of the two real numbers modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → (((𝐴 mod 𝑀) − (𝐵 mod 𝑀)) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴𝐵) mod 𝑀))

Theorem2txmodxeq0 12770 Two times a positive real number modulo the real number is zero. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Jun-2018.)
(𝑋 ∈ ℝ+ → ((2 · 𝑋) mod 𝑋) = 0)

Theorem2submod 12771 If a real number is between a positive real number and twice the positive real number, the real number modulo the positive real number equals the real number minus the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 13-May-2018.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+) ∧ (𝐵𝐴𝐴 < (2 · 𝐵))) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) = (𝐴𝐵))

Theoremmodifeq2int 12772 If a nonnegative integer is less than twice a positive integer, the nonnegative integer modulo the positive integer equals the nonnegative integer or the nonnegative integer minus the positive integer. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝐵 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 < (2 · 𝐵)) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) = if(𝐴 < 𝐵, 𝐴, (𝐴𝐵)))

Theoremmodaddmodup 12773 The sum of an integer modulo a positive integer and another integer minus the positive integer equals the sum of the two integers modulo the positive integer if the other integer is in the upper part of the range between 0 and the positive integer. (Contributed by AV, 30-Oct-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐵 ∈ ((𝑀 − (𝐴 mod 𝑀))..^𝑀) → ((𝐵 + (𝐴 mod 𝑀)) − 𝑀) = ((𝐵 + 𝐴) mod 𝑀)))

Theoremmodaddmodlo 12774 The sum of an integer modulo a positive integer and another integer equals the sum of the two integers modulo the positive integer if the other integer is in the lower part of the range between 0 and the positive integer. (Contributed by AV, 30-Oct-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐵 ∈ (0..^(𝑀 − (𝐴 mod 𝑀))) → (𝐵 + (𝐴 mod 𝑀)) = ((𝐵 + 𝐴) mod 𝑀)))

Theoremmodmulmod 12775 The product of a real number modulo a positive real number and an integer equals the product of the real number and the integer modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → (((𝐴 mod 𝑀) · 𝐵) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmodmulmodr 12776 The product of an integer and a real number modulo a positive real number equals the product of the integer and the real number modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 9-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 · (𝐵 mod 𝑀)) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmodaddmulmod 12777 The sum of a real number and the product of a second real number modulo a positive real number and an integer equals the sum of the real number and the product of the other real number and the integer modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-May-2018.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℤ) ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐴 + ((𝐵 mod 𝑀) · 𝐶)) mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴 + (𝐵 · 𝐶)) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmoddi 12778 Distribute multiplication over a modulo operation. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ+𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 · (𝐵 mod 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) mod (𝐴 · 𝐶)))

Theoremmodsubdir 12779 Distribute the modulo operation over a subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 30-Dec-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℝ+) → ((𝐵 mod 𝐶) ≤ (𝐴 mod 𝐶) ↔ ((𝐴𝐵) mod 𝐶) = ((𝐴 mod 𝐶) − (𝐵 mod 𝐶))))

Theoremmodeqmodmin 12780 A real number equals the difference of the real number and a positive real number modulo the positive real number. (Contributed by AV, 3-Nov-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝐴 mod 𝑀) = ((𝐴𝑀) mod 𝑀))

Theoremmodirr 12781 A number modulo an irrational multiple of it is nonzero. (Contributed by NM, 11-Nov-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+ ∧ (𝐴 / 𝐵) ∈ (ℝ ∖ ℚ)) → (𝐴 mod 𝐵) ≠ 0)

Theoremmodfzo0difsn 12782* For a number within a half-open range of nonnegative integers with one excluded integer there is a positive integer so that the number is equal to the sum of the positive integer and the excluded integer modulo the upper bound of the range. (Contributed by AV, 19-Mar-2021.)
((𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ∧ 𝐾 ∈ ((0..^𝑁) ∖ {𝐽})) → ∃𝑖 ∈ (1..^𝑁)𝐾 = ((𝑖 + 𝐽) mod 𝑁))

Theoremmodsumfzodifsn 12783 The sum of a number within a half-open range of positive integers is an element of the corresponding open range of nonnegative integers with one excluded integer modulo the excluded integer. (Contributed by AV, 19-Mar-2021.)
((𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ∧ 𝐾 ∈ (1..^𝑁)) → ((𝐾 + 𝐽) mod 𝑁) ∈ ((0..^𝑁) ∖ {𝐽}))

Theoremmodlteq 12784 Two nonnegative integers less than the modulus are equal iff they are equal modulo the modulus. (Contributed by AV, 14-Mar-2021.)
((𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ∧ 𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁)) → ((𝐼 mod 𝑁) = (𝐽 mod 𝑁) ↔ 𝐼 = 𝐽))

Theoremaddmodlteq 12785 Two nonnegative integers less than the modulus are equal iff the sums of these integer with another integer are equal modulo the modulus. A much shorter proof exists if the "divides" relation can be used, see addmodlteqALT 15094. (Contributed by AV, 20-Mar-2021.)
((𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ∧ 𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℤ) → (((𝐼 + 𝑆) mod 𝑁) = ((𝐽 + 𝑆) mod 𝑁) ↔ 𝐼 = 𝐽))

Theoremom2uz0i 12786* The mapping 𝐺 is a one-to-one mapping from ω onto upper integers that will be used to construct a recursive definition generator. Ordinal natural number 0 maps to complex number 𝐶 (normally 0 for the upper integers 0 or 1 for the upper integers ), 1 maps to 𝐶 + 1, etc. This theorem shows the value of 𝐺 at ordinal natural number zero. (This series of theorems generalizes an earlier series for 0 contributed by Raph Levien, 10-Apr-2004.) (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       (𝐺‘∅) = 𝐶

Theoremom2uzsuci 12787* The value of 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786) at a successor. (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       (𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐺‘suc 𝐴) = ((𝐺𝐴) + 1))

Theoremom2uzuzi 12788* The value 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786) at an ordinal natural number is in the upper integers. (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       (𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐺𝐴) ∈ (ℤ𝐶))

Theoremom2uzlti 12789* Less-than relation for 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786). (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       ((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝐺𝐴) < (𝐺𝐵)))

Theoremom2uzlt2i 12790* The mapping 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786) preserves order. (Contributed by NM, 4-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       ((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) → (𝐴𝐵 ↔ (𝐺𝐴) < (𝐺𝐵)))

Theoremom2uzrani 12791* Range of 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786). (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       ran 𝐺 = (ℤ𝐶)

Theoremom2uzf1oi 12792* 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786) is a one-to-one onto mapping. (Contributed by NM, 3-Oct-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       𝐺:ω–1-1-onto→(ℤ𝐶)

Theoremom2uzisoi 12793* 𝐺 (see om2uz0i 12786) is an isomorphism from natural ordinals to upper integers. (Contributed by NM, 9-Oct-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       𝐺 Isom E , < (ω, (ℤ𝐶))

Theoremom2uzoi 12794* An alternative definition of 𝐺 in terms of df-oi 8456. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Jun-2015.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)       𝐺 = OrdIso( < , (ℤ𝐶))

Theoremom2uzrdg 12795* A helper lemma for the value of a recursive definition generator on upper integers (typically either or 0) with characteristic function 𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦) and initial value 𝐴. Normally 𝐹 is a function on the partition, and 𝐴 is a member of the partition. See also comment in om2uz0i 12786. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2014.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝑅 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑦 ∈ V ↦ ⟨(𝑥 + 1), (𝑥𝐹𝑦)⟩), ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩) ↾ ω)       (𝐵 ∈ ω → (𝑅𝐵) = ⟨(𝐺𝐵), (2nd ‘(𝑅𝐵))⟩)

Theoremuzrdglem 12796* A helper lemma for the value of a recursive definition generator on upper integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2014.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝑅 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑦 ∈ V ↦ ⟨(𝑥 + 1), (𝑥𝐹𝑦)⟩), ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩) ↾ ω)       (𝐵 ∈ (ℤ𝐶) → ⟨𝐵, (2nd ‘(𝑅‘(𝐺𝐵)))⟩ ∈ ran 𝑅)

Theoremuzrdgfni 12797* The recursive definition generator on upper integers is a function. See comment in om2uzrdg 12795. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-May-2015.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝑅 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑦 ∈ V ↦ ⟨(𝑥 + 1), (𝑥𝐹𝑦)⟩), ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩) ↾ ω)    &   𝑆 = ran 𝑅       𝑆 Fn (ℤ𝐶)

Theoremuzrdg0i 12798* Initial value of a recursive definition generator on upper integers. See comment in om2uzrdg 12795. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2014.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝑅 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑦 ∈ V ↦ ⟨(𝑥 + 1), (𝑥𝐹𝑦)⟩), ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩) ↾ ω)    &   𝑆 = ran 𝑅       (𝑆𝐶) = 𝐴

Theoremuzrdgsuci 12799* Successor value of a recursive definition generator on upper integers. See comment in om2uzrdg 12795. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Sep-2013.)
𝐶 ∈ ℤ    &   𝐺 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V ↦ (𝑥 + 1)), 𝐶) ↾ ω)    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝑅 = (rec((𝑥 ∈ V, 𝑦 ∈ V ↦ ⟨(𝑥 + 1), (𝑥𝐹𝑦)⟩), ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩) ↾ ω)    &   𝑆 = ran 𝑅       (𝐵 ∈ (ℤ𝐶) → (𝑆‘(𝐵 + 1)) = (𝐵𝐹(𝑆𝐵)))

Theoremltweuz 12800 < is a well-founded relation on any sequence of upper integers. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 13-Nov-2011.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jun-2015.)
< We (ℤ𝐴)

Page List
Jump to page: Contents  1 1-100 2 101-200 3 201-300 4 301-400 5 401-500 6 501-600 7 601-700 8 701-800 9 801-900 10 901-1000 11 1001-1100 12 1101-1200 13 1201-1300 14 1301-1400 15 1401-1500 16 1501-1600 17 1601-1700 18 1701-1800 19 1801-1900 20 1901-2000 21 2001-2100 22 2101-2200 23 2201-2300 24 2301-2400 25 2401-2500 26 2501-2600 27 2601-2700 28 2701-2800 29 2801-2900 30 2901-3000 31 3001-3100 32 3101-3200 33 3201-3300 34 3301-3400 35 3401-3500 36 3501-3600 37 3601-3700 38 3701-3800 39 3801-3900 40 3901-4000 41 4001-4100 42 4101-4200 43 4201-4300 44 4301-4400 45 4401-4500 46 4501-4600 47 4601-4700 48 4701-4800 49 4801-4900 50 4901-5000 51 5001-5100 52 5101-5200 53 5201-5300 54 5301-5400 55 5401-5500 56 5501-5600 57 5601-5700 58 5701-5800 59 5801-5900 60 5901-6000 61 6001-6100 62 6101-6200 63 6201-6300 64 6301-6400 65 6401-6500 66 6501-6600 67 6601-6700 68 6701-6800 69 6801-6900 70 6901-7000 71 7001-7100 72 7101-7200 73 7201-7300 74 7301-7400 75 7401-7500 76 7501-7600 77 7601-7700 78 7701-7800 79 7801-7900 80 7901-8000 81 8001-8100 82 8101-8200 83 8201-8300 84 8301-8400 85 8401-8500 86 8501-8600 87 8601-8700 88 8701-8800 89 8801-8900 90 8901-9000 91 9001-9100 92 9101-9200 93 9201-9300 94 9301-9400 95 9401-9500 96 9501-9600 97 9601-9700 98 9701-9800 99 9801-9900 100 9901-10000 101 10001-10100 102 10101-10200 103 10201-10300 104 10301-10400 105 10401-10500 106 10501-10600 107 10601-10700 108 10701-10800 109 10801-10900 110 10901-11000 111 11001-11100 112 11101-11200 113 11201-11300 114 11301-11400 115 11401-11500 116 11501-11600 117 11601-11700 118 11701-11800 119 11801-11900 120 11901-12000 121 12001-12100 122 12101-12200 123 12201-12300 124 12301-12400 125 12401-12500 126 12501-12600 127 12601-12700 128 12701-12800 129 12801-12900 130 12901-13000 131 13001-13100 132 13101-13200 133 13201-13300 134 13301-13400 135 13401-13500 136 13501-13600 137 13601-13700 138 13701-13800 139 13801-13900 140 13901-14000 141 14001-14100 142 14101-14200 143 14201-14300 144 14301-14400 145 14401-14500 146 14501-14600 147 14601-14700 148 14701-14800 149 14801-14900 150 14901-15000 151 15001-15100 152 15101-15200 153 15201-15300 154 15301-15400 155 15401-15500 156 15501-15600 157 15601-15700 158 15701-15800 159 15801-15900 160 15901-16000 161 16001-16100 162 16101-16200 163 16201-16300 164 16301-16400 165 16401-16500 166 16501-16600 167 16601-16700 168 16701-16800 169 16801-16900 170 16901-17000 171 17001-17100 172 17101-17200 173 17201-17300 174 17301-17400 175 17401-17500 176 17501-17600 177 17601-17700 178 17701-17800 179 17801-17900 180 17901-18000 181 18001-18100 182 18101-18200 183 18201-18300 184 18301-18400 185 18401-18500 186 18501-18600 187 18601-18700 188 18701-18800 189 18801-18900 190 18901-19000 191 19001-19100 192 19101-19200 193 19201-19300 194 19301-19400 195 19401-19500 196 19501-19600 197 19601-19700 198 19701-19800 199 19801-19900 200 19901-20000 201 20001-20100 202 20101-20200 203 20201-20300 204 20301-20400 205 20401-20500 206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42879
 Copyright terms: Public domain < Previous  Next >