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Definition df-sb 2035
Description: Define proper substitution. Remark 9.1 in [Megill] p. 447 (p. 15 of the preprint). For our notation, we use [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 to mean "the wff that results from the proper substitution of 𝑦 for 𝑥 in the wff 𝜑." That is, 𝑦 properly replaces 𝑥. For example, [𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑧𝑦 is the same as 𝑧𝑥, as shown in elsb4 2560. We can also use [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 in place of the "free for" side condition used in traditional predicate calculus; see, for example, stdpc4 2478.

Our notation was introduced in Haskell B. Curry's Foundations of Mathematical Logic (1977), p. 316 and is frequently used in textbooks of lambda calculus and combinatory logic. This notation improves the common but ambiguous notation, "𝜑(𝑦) is the wff that results when 𝑦 is properly substituted for 𝑥 in 𝜑(𝑥)." For example, if the original 𝜑(𝑥) is 𝑥 = 𝑦, then 𝜑(𝑦) is 𝑦 = 𝑦, from which we obtain that 𝜑(𝑥) is 𝑥 = 𝑥. So what exactly does 𝜑(𝑥) mean? Curry's notation solves this problem.

In most books, proper substitution has a somewhat complicated recursive definition with multiple cases based on the occurrences of free and bound variables in the wff. Instead, we use a single formula that is exactly equivalent and gives us a direct definition. We later prove that our definition has the properties we expect of proper substitution (see theorems sbequ 2501, sbcom2 2570 and sbid2v 2582).

Note that our definition is valid even when 𝑥 and 𝑦 are replaced with the same variable, as sbid 2249 shows. We achieve this by having 𝑥 free in the first conjunct and bound in the second. We can also achieve this by using a dummy variable, as the alternate definition dfsb7 2580 shows (which some logicians may prefer because it doesn't mix free and bound variables). Another version that mixes free and bound variables is dfsb3 2499. When 𝑥 and 𝑦 are distinct, we can express proper substitution with the simpler expressions of sb5 2555 and sb6 2554.

There are no restrictions on any of the variables, including what variables may occur in wff 𝜑. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1993.)

Assertion
Ref Expression
df-sb ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)))

Detailed syntax breakdown of Definition df-sb
StepHypRef Expression
1 wph . . 3 wff 𝜑
2 vx . . 3 setvar 𝑥
3 vy . . 3 setvar 𝑦
41, 2, 3wsb 2034 . 2 wff [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑
52, 3weq 2028 . . . 4 wff 𝑥 = 𝑦
65, 1wi 4 . . 3 wff (𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
75, 1wa 383 . . . 4 wff (𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
87, 2wex 1841 . . 3 wff 𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)
96, 8wa 383 . 2 wff ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
104, 9wb 196 1 wff ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ((𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑) ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)))
Colors of variables: wff setvar class
This definition is referenced by:  sbequ2  2036  sb1  2037  sbequ8  2039  sbimi  2040  sbequ1  2245  sb2  2477  drsb1  2502  sbn  2516  subsym1  32703  bj-sb2v  33030  bj-dfsb2  33102  frege55b  38662
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